UIC HIGHSPEED 2023 – Submit a paper Table

Number of presentations: 293

id Submitted on Speaker candidate Title of the presentation Co-authors Topic Keywords Short Description
4477 14 July 2022 at 8:30 am FRANCESCA PAGLIARA Marginal costs in a dynamic context: the case study of Italian railway system

Antonio D’Ambrosio – Department of Economics and Statistics – University of Naples Federico II
Gianmarco Troiani – Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering – University of Naples Federico II
Francesco Favo – Rete Ferroviaria Italiana RFI (Italian Railway Network)

Asset management (project development)(Asset management (project development)) MARGINAL COSTS COMPUTATION, ECONOMETRIC APPROACH

The marginal costs computation relating to railway infrastructures is fundamental for a fair and sustainable redistribution of costs among all the players operating in the rail sector. The various regulations over the years have opened the European railway transport market to competition, orienting the principles of imposing the charges for the use of the infrastructure according to fair and non-discriminatory criteria.
In this study, based on the works in the literature, a relationship was identified between the costs borne by the infrastructure manager and traffic data according to an econometric approach. This method estimates the costs directly linked to the provision of the railway service, identifying the corresponding marginal costs. All the proposed models try to interpret the dependence of costs on the load according to various mathematical models.
The elasticity and marginal costs resulting from the models, applied to the case study of the Italian railway network, seem to be in line with the results obtained in the other studies, falling within the same order of magnitude. However, a real comparison cannot be made without considering the context in which these costs were calculated. A national railway network changes from one state to another in relation to many factors. The most obvious are the geomorphology of the area, the climatic conditions, the characteristics of the vehicles (weight, speed and length) and the evolution of technologies. Furthermore, the different distribution of the most important cities in the area, and therefore of the demand for mobility, deeply changes the structure of the network. As a result, the main cost items that make up the operator’s financial statements will differ from one country to another. The needs of the infrastructural system, specific to each country, will change the management of economic resources linked not only to maintenance, but also to the improvement of the network itself.

4481 23 July 2022 at 10:53 am David Taylor Private Participation in the African Union’s Agenda 2063: leveraging regional efficiencies Project architecture (Public ownership, PPP, Franchises, etc.) (Project architecture (Public ownership, PPP, Franchises, etc.) ) Third Party Access, Interoperability

In light of African Union’s Agenda 2063, African States are increasingly seeking out Standard Gauge Rail technology for regional rail megaprojects, with high speed, high capacity rail connectivity at the core of this ambition. A most recent announcement was the inclusion of Standard Gauge Rail in South Africa’s recently announced National Rail Policy.

With a view on the AfCFTA, African Union’s Agenda 2063 and a regional policy environment that is more inclusive of the Private Sector, how can Regional Governments leverage Private Sector involvement in current and upcoming rail projects to create more value for the upstream economies and bolster rail in Africa’s transport modal mix.

Furthermore, once greater regional connectivity is achieved through expansive SGR rail builds, how do we approach topics such as interoperability and cross-acceptance?

4493 4 August 2022 at 10:05 pm Inara Watson Factors Affecting the Energy Consumption of the Selected High-Speed Railway Systems Energy measurement and efficiency (Energy measurement and efficiency ) Energy measurement, Efficiency

The world economy experiences essential changes, including the increasing globalization of the economy, which may significantly impact the transport system and the environment.
High-speed railways (HSRs) are the most sustainable way to transport passengers and goods as they operate on an electrified network. Because an HSR system is an energy-intensive transport system, it is important economically and environmentally to reduce the amount of used energy.
In this research, the non-radial Data Envelopment Analyses methodology has been used to estimate the dynamic changes in the total energy consumption for seven HSR systems over 2010-2017 and benchmark the most energy efficient HSR systems. The results of IBM SPSS indicate a strong negative correlation between the energy efficiency scores and to weight/seat ratio and a strong positive correlation between energy efficiency scores and seat utilization ratio.
The research findings have shown that changes in energy consumption strongly correlate with the type of high-speed rolling stock and operational strategies. This research will support train operators to make decisions when acquiring new trains and assess the benefits of acceleration in the modernisation of the current rolling stock. The expected outcomes of this research will contribute to the development and advances of more sustainable HSR systems.

4497 9 August 2022 at 8:42 am Miroslav Haltuf High Speed Rail as a complex mobility and innovation driver Wider socio-economical impacts (Wider socio-economical impacts ) High Speed Rail, Mobility

High-speed rail is becoming an integral part of the railway system. Building it where it does not yet exist, for example in Central and Eastern Europe, is not easy. I am not referring to the design and construction itself, which is manageable almost anywhere in the current conditions. In my presentation, I would like to reflect on the socio-economic impact on society and on the territory. There are many questions, but the most important ones that I would like to seek answers to in my presentation are as follows:
– How will or can high-speed rail transport (HSR) affect the mobility of people and goods in the area?
– How does the demographic structure of the population affect the development and use of HSR?
– is it better to change the mobility of citizens and the industrial development of a territory or is it more efficient to change the routing of HSR and the configuration of the rail network?
– Will new HSR lines significantly affect the capacity of existing conventional lines in favor of rail freight transport?
– What is the impact of transport cost on the decision to choose a transport mode?
– How to integrate HSR into urban mobility and ITS concepts?
Finally, I would like to mention the possibilities of low-emission high-speed rail transport. Is it rather a vision that has no hope of being realized in the near future, or is it a path heading in the right direction? There are many questions, but there are not so many satisfactory answers.

4498 10 August 2022 at 1:04 pm Paige Malott Benefits of Building High Speed Rail at Airports Connections with urban, regional networks and airports (Connections with urban, regional networks and airports ) economic, climate

In North America, the Cascadia megaregion has reached a tipping point where expanding its mobility choices to include high speed rail is critical to plan for long-term growth and address large-scale challenges such as climate change.

The Cascadia megaregion, which includes Seattle and Portland in the U.S. and Vancouver, Canada, is reported to grow by 3.6 million people by 2050; three times the size of the current population. Regional growth plans only account for 2.3 million of those people, leaving a gap of 1.3 million people unaccounted for where they will live and work, as well as adding further demand on the region’s strained transportation network. Additionally, a study on regional growth in aviation found that Seattle’s Sea-Tac airport will exhaust all expansions by 2027 and still be over capacity by 3 million passengers annually. Decision-makers are exploring building two additional airports to meet demand. Meanwhile, 60 percent of the region’s carbon emissions come from passenger transportation. Legislators have set a goal to reduce carbon emissions by 80 percent by 2050 in alignment with the Paris Climate Accord. On our current trajectory, Cascadia will miss this goal and only decrease emissions by 20-30 percent without a game-changing investment in fast, high-capacity, clean-energy transportation, such as high speed rail.

This study examines the economic, mobility, and climate benefits of building high speed rail at airports, and recommends how collaboration between aviation and high speed rail can improve outcomes for megaregions compared to each mode operating in a silo.

4504 28 August 2022 at 8:00 am Mohamed Bouhaja Business impact with quality from day one in the railway sector Service quality (cooperation)(Service quality (cooperation)) Quality reinvented, Business impact

My contribution will show how the entire quality management system in the railway sector can be comprehensively aligned in a meaningful way in order to focus on the requirements of customers, employees, society and the environment.

At its core, my contribution is a plea and a guide to position “quality” in a contemporary meaning as a corporate value and success-critical competence. It aims to help re-establish quality in the current context of globalization, digitization, the environmental and climate crisis.

I am 32 years old enthusiastic quality manager with a strong understanding of quality, comprehensive knowledge in project management and passion for digitization topics.

I was born in Tangier, Morocco, where I studied and completed my bachelor Industrial Engineering in 2011.

In April 2017, I completed my master’s degree in Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Wuppertal in Germany.

I have been working at Siemens Mobility since July 2015, where I had several tasks such as:

Quality Manager at the locomotive plant in Munich
Project Manager for digitization projects
Business Excellence and Quality Manager

4506 28 August 2022 at 8:10 am Mohamed Bouhaja Bouhaja Business impact with quality from day one in the railway sector Service quality (marketing)(Service quality (marketing)) Quality reinvented, Business impact

My contribution will show how the entire quality management system in the railway sector can be comprehensively aligned in a meaningful way in order to focus on the requirements of customers, employees, society and the environment.

At its core, my contribution is a plea and a guide to position “quality” in a contemporary meaning as a corporate value and success-critical competence. It aims to help re-establish quality in the current context of globalization, digitization, the environmental and climate crisis.

4507 28 August 2022 at 9:05 am Mohamed Bouhaja Bouhaja With confident steps into a successful project – PM@Siemens as a model Project management (Project management ) Smart project management, Agile project management in railway sector

The PM@Siemens Guide has been the project management standard for Siemens’ global project business for more than 15 years.
My contribution will show how PM@Siemens works perfectly in the railway sector and the VUCA World.

4509 30 August 2022 at 1:35 pm Radek Čech Preparation of HSR Network in the Czech Republic Network planning (Network planning ) Central Europe, Via Vindobona

The paper introduces the current status of preparation of the HSR network in the Czech Republic which is considered to be a crossroad of the Central Europe. It focuses mainly on the concept background and characteristics of technical design of individual HSR lines at different stages of progress. Using concrete examples, it presents the long-term demographic, environmental and transport gains generated by HSR implementation in the Czech Republic. The paper will also cover the outreach and connections of the Czech HSR network to neighbouring countries, such as the concept “Via Vindobona” which establishes a framework for intensive passenger railway connections between the national capitals with the prospect of achieving a four-hour journey time on the Berlin – Prague – Wien route. The Czech HSR network is thus key contribution to wider integration of the Central European region.

4514 2 September 2022 at 3:47 pm Svetlana Grechka Accessibility Requirements beyond the US: a close look at the Kingdom of Morocco Inclusive and accessible facilties for all (Inclusive and accessible facilties for all ) stations and facilitites, accessibility requirements

High-speed rail stations vary from typical transit stations in many ways. They are much larger, serve different trip purposes and have different characteristics. High-speed rail stations are also multi modal “hubs” with direct connection to local and regional transit and rail systems. Since they serve such an important and expansive purpose, they are a key part of the transit infrastructure serving the public.
While these stations offer an inter-modal transportation network and accommodate large numbers of passengers, special attention should be paid to a particular part of the population, those with disabilities. Since these individuals are a part of our community, they should have the unhindered access to public transportation.
Even though most countries have their own laws and requirements addressing accessibility, it is beneficial to learn from each other, as there is always room for improvement. In doing so, designing the transit stations may require breaking the mold of generally accepted transit design principles to incorporate best practices and collective knowledge of the subject.
During this presentation, the author will carefully analyze the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design in the US and the initiatives were taking place in the Kingdom of Morocco. The author will explore the various considerations to meet the needs of the public that will be in line with achieving a goal of delivering safe and accessible transportation services that promote improved quality of life.

4515 2 September 2022 at 3:56 pm Svetlana Grechka Lessons from the Safety Certification of a Commuter Rail project in the US

Safety is the top priority for transportation projects, and it continues to gain attention from all stakeholders. To create secure, sustainable, and efficient modes of transportation, the continuity of a safety certification throughout a project is critical. This certification requires a close look at project implementations during the design, construction, and final verification through activation.
In this paper, the author will present on the safety certification process implemented on the North Metro Commuter Rail project lead by Regional Transportation District (RTD) in Denver. She will explore the specific steps were taken for the project to be safety certified and will cover the lessons learned that can be applied for future rail projects.

Homologation Certification (Homologation Certification ) Safety certification, Cerification

Safety is the top priority for transportation projects, and it continues to gain attention from all stakeholders. To create secure, sustainable, and efficient modes of transportation, the continuity of a safety certification throughout a project is critical. This certification requires a close look at project implementations during the design, construction, and final verification through activation.
In this paper, the author will present on the safety certification process implemented on the North Metro Commuter Rail project lead by Regional Transportation District (RTD) in Denver. She will explore the specific steps were taken for the project to be safety certified and will cover the lessons learned that can be applied for future rail projects.

4519 3 September 2022 at 2:04 pm Lucas Rabehi Engineering a high-speed night train

Kerian Chauvin
Hugo Decloquement

Functional & technical specifications (Functional & technical specifications ) Night Train, High Speed

With growing demand for night trains in Europe, we set out to conceive and engineer a high speed night train with interoperability capabilities in order to create new opportunities for both businessmen and tourists. The train would be an electrical triple unit that would link major business and tourism hubs using both conventional and high speed lines in Europe. It would then split up to bring people closer to their final destination in the morning using slower tracks. It would also bring airline-style business class seats to the railway industry for better comfort and capacity.

4522 3 September 2022 at 9:15 pm Elbir Elhabib Traction manager Rolling stock depots (Rolling stock depots ) Safety, Traction

Safety, sécurité, management

4523 5 September 2022 at 9:14 am David Taylor Policy Direction and the Luxembourg Rail Protocol – decreasing risk for great investment into rolling stock. Rolling stock purchasing strategy (Rolling stock purchasing strategy ) Luxembourg Rail Protocol, Cape Town Convention

The Importance of the Luxembourg Rail Protocol in Modern Rail Operations, with a view of Third Party Access, to decrease risk and to attract private investment into rolling stock on Africa’s rail networks.

4530 13 September 2022 at 6:27 am Bichoi Metias Turnkey Rail Solutions for High Speed Door-to-door service (Door-to-door service ) turnkey solutions, High speed

This contribution will show how can we make an attractive, cost-effective, and environmentally clean mobility turnkey solutions for high speed, although making such transportation systems a reality is an extremely complex task,

4531 13 September 2022 at 6:29 am Bichoi Metias Climate-friendly transportation Hydrogen and battery  power (Hydrogen and battery  power ) Net Zero, H2goesRail

Here, alternative drives can help reduce emissions from diesel rail transport. This way, we’ll be able to operate virtually climate-neutral on rail routes where full electrification is not possible.
With Siemens Mobility, we’ve developed the next generation of hydrogen-powered trains that offers a particularly long operating range and faster acceleration. Each delivered train can save up to 45,000 tons of CO2 over its service life of 30 years compared to corresponding travel with cars. This would be our topic for this session.

4532 13 September 2022 at 6:36 am Bichoi Metias Moving Egypt – 6ᵗʰ largest high-speed rail network in the world () high-speed rail network, beneficial rail systems for society and environment

This contribution will show how a 2,000 km state-of-the-art high-speed rail network that will connect 60 cities throughout the country with trains that can operate up to 230 km/h. will provide 90% of Egyptians access to a modern, safe, and affordable transportation system. The fully electrified network will cut carbon emissions by 70% compared to current car or bus transport, further supporting Egypt’s efforts in transforming its mobility to a more sustainable one.

4534 14 September 2022 at 8:34 am Shuji Sugimori A Study on the Mutual Enhancement of Regional Economy and Personal QOL along the Mumbai–Ahmedabad High–Speed Rail Corridor in India

Yoshitsugu Hayashi
Tsuyoshi Takano

Wider socio-economical impacts (Wider socio-economical impacts ) Regional economy, Quality of Life (QOL)

High-speed rails (HSRs) have been developed in many countries and regions. The advantages of HSR as a mass passenger transportation are not only the economic benefits due to its speediness, but also its environmental advantages in terms of energy-efficiency compared to air travel and other modes of transportation, making it an effective contribution to sustainable development.
Among the various effects of high-speed rail, a direct benefit to users has been measured as an in-crease in gross domestic product (GDP) by the conventional cost–benefit analysis (CBA), which was institutionalized in the U.K. In recent years, the importance of capturing indirect benefits to non-users has also been broadly discussed. The indirect benefits of HSR can mainly be classified into two perspectives: regional economy and personal quality of life (QOL).
In this study, we modelled the mutual enhancement between those effects, and analyzed the in-direct benefits of the Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail (MAHSR), which is currently under construction as the first HSR for India, an emerging country with a rapidly growing economy. The indirect benefit for the regional economy along the MAHSR corridor was estimated by industry and by zone. In addition, the indirect benefit for personal QOL by individual’s attribute and by zone through the mutual enhancement with regional economy, was also estimated.
This method can evaluate the interregional disparity by identifying the differences in benefit by person according to age, income, etc., which cannot be evaluated based on a mass measure, gross domestic product (GDP), in the conventional CBA. Thus, this method can quantitatively evaluate “No one left behind”, as stated in the SDGs, and is expected to be utilized to aid in various future policy evaluations in a society with diverse values.

4537 14 September 2022 at 5:00 pm Elvan ARSLAN DEMİR YOLU RAYLARININ BAKIMI: Yüksek Hızlı Tren Hatlarında Rayların Yeniden Profillendirilmesi Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) demiryolu, ray, ray profili yeniden profillendirme, yüksek hızlı tren

Demiryollarında rayların bakımı emniyet, sürüş konforu, araç ve altyapı bakım maliyetleri açısından önemli bir parametredir. Bu bakım süreci içerisinde rayların yeniden profillendirilmesi söz konusu bakım kısmının en önemli ayağıdır. Ray yüzeyinden belirli bir miktarda çeşitli yöntemlerle taşlaş kaldırılması esasına dayanır. Bu çalışmada Yüksek Hızlı Tren Hatlarında rayların yeniden profillendirilmesi çalışmalarında yeniden profillendirmenin işlevi, işlem prosedürleri, çalışma stratejisi oluşturması, çalışma öncesi ve sonrası yapılacak hazırlıklar, çalışma sonucunda oluşturulacak sonuç raporlarının değerlendirilmesi çalışmanın kabul edilmesi ve tavsiyeler bölümünden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın giriş bölümünde rayların bakımının hangi şekilde yapılacağı anlatılarak bu metotlar maddeler halinde açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde rayların yeniden profillendirme çalışmalarına değinilerek çalışma öncesi ve sonrası yapılacaklar, periyodik olarak yeniden profillendirme çalışmalarında dikkat edilecek hususlar, ray durumu ve kusurlarına göre müdahale ve bakım eşiklerinin tanımlanması ve yeniden profillendirme metotlarının seçimi hakkında öneriler ve bilgiler verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde Yüksek hızlı tren hatlarında yeniden profillendirme çalışmalarında işin kabul edilebilmesi için enine profil, boyuna profil, metal kaldırma, yüzey kalitesi ve görünüm muayenesi hakkında kabul için gerekli kalite şartları önerilmiştir. Sonuç kısmında Yüksek Hızlı Tren Hatlarında yapılan yeniden profillendirme çalışmaları için önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

4539 15 September 2022 at 1:50 pm Martin Švehlík New HSR stations architecture in the Czech Republic Architectural design and placemaking (Architectural design and placemaking ) Central Europe, HSR stations

The planned high-speed rail system in the Czech Republic also includes building several new HSR stations. The presentation describes the design of the new transit hubs, which are the outcome of architectural competitions with international participation. During the preparation of the competition specifications and the evaluation of the submitted designs, there is intensive cooperation with SNCF experts. In particular, we utilize their forty years of experience to ensure the safety and smooth operation of links between all transport modes. Thanks to architectural competitions, we achieve an optimal design that provides both aesthetic quality and cost-effectiveness. With the help of these new stations, we will bring eco-friendly high-speed transport closer to more than half of the Czech population. High-speed rail will thus become a key contribution to a wider integration of the Central European region.

4540 16 September 2022 at 5:31 am Kenichi Kogayo Streamlining JR East Shinkansen track maintenance Track maintenance tools (Track maintenance tools ) Ballast, Rail

1. Features of JR East Shinkansen
We operate 5 Shinkansen lines. The total length of lines is about 1,100 km, maintained/managed by 9 track maintenance technology center.
Track structure mainly consists of 3 types: ballast, slab, and anti-vibration tracks.
2. Efficient track maintenance
The Shinkansen track system is maintained by rougly 1,200 staff, which will gradually decrease in 20 years. So, it is necessary to prepare a sustainable maintenance system for the future and we have made some improvements so far.
In mechanizing work, we have introduced multiple tie tampers which can be used even in turnouts and several types of rail grinding vehicles. However, one of the challenges is how to mechanize the work of replacing ballast and rails.
3. Dealing with the challenge
A) New ballast excavator
Deteriorated ballast had been partially replaced by using a backhoe, but this progress was too slow, only 5 to 10 meters per night. Therefore, a new ballast excavator was introduced in 2016, improving it from 20 to 30 meters per night.
It bore another problem; we had to save train speed for ballast’s stability. Then, we introduced a new methodstabilizer machine in 2022 and enabled to increase the running speed to 210 km/h.
B) New Shinkansen rail exchange system (REXS)
Rail replacement work is carried out in 4 processes: (1) preparatory work for transporting equipments, (2) transporting/unloading/welding new rails, (3) replacing/welding rails, and (4) transporting old rails. The REXS was introduced to streamline the overall processes in 2017.
For the task (2), REXS increased the loading capacity and decreased the welding work time.
For the work (3), REXS increased the length of the replacement work per night. REXS brought a huge improvement on working time.
5 years have passed since we introduced REXS, and total of 418,000 meters rails had been replaced without any big accidents. We are still working on maintenance tasks by using this system.

4544 19 September 2022 at 2:24 pm Giovanni Luca Giacco Giacco High-Speed rolling stock rostering and maintenance optimization Maintenance (operations and maintenance)(Maintenance (operations and maintenance)) Rolling Stock, Maintenance

Rolling Stock Management (RSM) is the main cost factor for Rail Undertakings operating in a competitive market. In order to reduce railway operations costs, every company must address the joint problem of rolling stock rostering and maintenance scheduling since they are strongly related parts of the same problem. This work describes a complex optimization framework for rolling stock ros¬tering and maintenance short term scheduling at a busy workshop in case of acyclic timetable. New formulations are provided and a scalable application using HPC architecture with parallel and distributed computing algorithms was developed. The general problem addressed can be defined as follows: Given timetables, rolling stock assets, maintenance operations, a rolling stock circulation solution has to be computed with minimum costs, that are expressed in terms of the number of used asset units, empty runs, and train movements between station platforms and the workshop.
The assessment of the computation time shows how the proposed method can be also used as an effective tool to absorb real-time timetable perturbations while respecting the agreed level of service. A robustness analysis is provided in order to evaluate the schedule quality in case of short-term traffic disturbances altering the off-line plan of operations. The objective is to re-balance the use of workshop resources to compute a feasible schedule, i.e. a schedule of all workshop operations within the time windows given by the rolling stock rostering planner and perturbed by traffic disturbances.

4545 19 September 2022 at 2:28 pm Giovanni Luca Giacco Giacco Complex High-Speed Network Optimization Modal complementarity (Modal complementarity ) Network planning optimization, Mulimodal Design

The growing demand for high-speed trains and the cut-throat competition with other operators pushes railway undertakings to increase rail transport services to better meet the demand and with clear implications on the company’s profit. At its first stage, the High-Speed Network appeared clearly isolated since it was not connected with other rail transports.
Nowadays, after a long evolution, the High-Speed Network plays a prominent role being the national mobility backbone with a strong effect on rapid transit areas as well.
The main achievement of our work is the enhancement of people connectivity by optimizing jointly the main stations clocks taking into account different means of transport and multimodal hubs. Our project focuses on developing complex mathematical optimization models and algorithms for the train timetabling problem with respect to travel demand and capacity constraints placing a specific emphasis on practical commercial and operational constraints such as paring time breaks, headway time, minimum connection time and passengers flows as well.
The complexity of the problem and the required short computation time make existing models and algorithms not adequate to find a near optimal solution especially in case of non-patterned services under high level of robustness constraints. To our knowledge, this is the first approach for such a complex timetable optimization involving hundreds of transports.

4548 20 September 2022 at 8:26 am Ignacio Sanz Junoy Management of Adif stations in a context of passenger services liberalization Management of Rail capacity (Management of Rail capacity ) liberalization

Stations are a fundamental element in the provision of rail passenger services.
Given the increase in lines and demand, the stations become congested. The flow of passengers increases considerably and there is not enough space for the management of services such as traveller information, ticketing, VIP rooms, board loading and unloading logistics services (catering) or PMR among others. It is also necessary to provide fair and balanced conditions to the incumbent and the newcomers, sharing the congested spaces. With the liberalization of these services, two main issues are raising. Firstly, the stations become congested, they are bottleneck. Secondly, different spaces under different regulation and divergent pricing. There is no homogeneity in the regulatory framework of the European Union.
One of the great challenges when managing a station operating in the liberalization context is deciding on the service provision model, following the principle of cooperation. Depending on who is responsible for the service, it can be managed by the infrastructure manager, by third parties or under the model or self-provision.
The paper develops each of these parts and shows two practical examples, on PMR assistance, and on board loading and unloading logistics services. The difficulties, challenges and solutions that Adif has established for its management are explained.

4550 20 September 2022 at 9:54 am Javier López Ordieres Adif in the process of liberalization the passenger services Network capacity management (Network capacity management ) Liberalization

Spain has opened in December 2020 the market for the domestic passenger services in compliance with the Fourth Railway Package. However, the process of liberalisation started some time ago. During this period Adif has analysed the open market process in other European IM. Adif carried out contacts and made bechmarkings with other IM about allocation capacity, provision of services in rail passangers stations, etc. The intention for this was to obtain information and feedback for guaranting some aspects in the liberalization as transparency, no discrimination, optimization of capacity and its use, customer vision, quality of services (punctuality) and plurality of candidates and lines.
During the process, Adif has worked together with the Spanish Rail Regulatory Body.
The evolution towards an open market has implied for Adif the declaration of congestion of some sections of the network and specially the stations Madrid Puerta de Atocha, Madrid Chamartín and Barcelona Sants. Also, the Adif Network Statement has been updated. Additionally, Adif has introduced the possibity to sign a framework agreement (10 year) with the operator. This will allow a better financing for those candidates that do not have the ownership of rolling stock.
The approach of Adif for the liberalisation process has consisted in the offering of 3 packages (A, B, C) for three high-speed corridors. After applying the priority criteria established in our Network Statement, Adif-AV resolved to award them to RENFE (A), Iryo (B), and Ouigo (C).
The main consequence of the open market has been the increase of 65 % (average) of the offer of rail transport on the three corridors. Henceforth, the implementation of more services and more operators will be beneficial for Spanish and European citizens.
The latest available traffic figures will be presented, analysing the real impact of this new environment.

4552 20 September 2022 at 10:09 am Jonathan Sánchez García The role of railway in the fight against climate change Emissions to Air, Land and Water  (Emissions to Air, Land and Water  ) climate change

The Climate Change is one of the biggest environmental problems on the world, so that the Spanish Government has set targets by 2030 aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to increase renewable generation sources and to improve the energy efficiency, mainly. All this with the aim of being carbon neutral by 2050.
To achieve these objectives, action must be taken in the transport and mobility sector, and it is here that the railway must play a leading role.
Adif and Adif AV have a Strategic Plan by 2030 in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations (UN). So, the sustainability is one of the four pillars of our Strategic Plan.
In this context, from the environmental point of view, Adif and Adif AV show their commitment to sustainability through their Plan to Combat Climate Change 2018-2030

The Plan establishes goals in mitigation, aims to reduce of energy consumption through improvement energy efficiency and to reduce GHG emissions. Likewise, the Plan aims to reduce the carbon footprint (scopes 1 and 2) of Adif and Adif AV by at least 86 percent if the purchase of green electricity (with guarantee of origin certificates) is taken into account. Our commitment is to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 as the maximum horizon, commitment it has signed with the UIC.

In adaptation, the Plan also contemplates the inclusion of the assessment of vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change in railway projects from 2020, as well as clauses related to climate change in all contract documents from 2025.

Adif supports the principle that rail projects can be covered by sustainable financing mechanisms. This includes the use of European Regional Development Fund. The projects under this umbrella include the adaptation to climate change of infrastructures (mainly due to the mitigation of the climate change effects and resilience).

4555 20 September 2022 at 10:33 am FABRICE MORENON HSR stations as hubs of green mobility Energy – Efficiency and renewable sources (Energy – Efficiency and renewable sources ) Hubs Green, Green Mobility

Low greenhouse gas emissions, reduced noise exposure, energy savings, societal benefits, the advantages of railways make them a sustainable transport solution.

The freedom to travel brings individuals and regions closer together. By drawing on the diversity of shared transport modes on offer, mobility companies offer, with and around the train, solutions adapted to each individual. The High-Speed Train (HST) emits 25 times less CO2 than the private car and 45 times less than the plane. By reaffirming the place of the train as the backbone of sustainable mobility, railway companies are responding to the need to combine freedom of movement with environmental protection.

The CO2 emissions of a train journey are lower than those of other means of transport, such as cars or planes. When travelling within the country by plane or train, the journey time is usually equivalent and less polluting for the train. A journey from Paris to Lyon takes 2 hours by train compared to 1.30 hour by plane (excluding the time spent waiting at the airport), therefore the duration is equivalent for a less polluting journey.

An important component of the journey is the station. Stations are the gateway to sustainable mobility, as the train is one of the lowest CO2 emitting means of transport. They must make people want to take the train by being exemplary in terms of environmental standards.

The SNCF’s challenges are to set an example and to innovate through four priorities: using cheaper and greener energy, developing eco-design, achieving zero non-recycled waste and promoting train-bike intramodality.

4556 20 September 2022 at 10:36 am Arturo Pastor García The Spanish High Speed Network facing an increase in demand due to the liberalization of passenger traffic Network planning (Network planning ) congestion, rail network development

Spain, with more than 3,700km, has the rail network with the most kilometers of High Speed in Europe and the second behind China. In addition to being a backbone of the economy, it is a key driver for achieving the transport decarbonisation objectives.

In 1992, the Madrid-Seville line was inaugurated, connecting cities accounting for 20% of the Spanish population at that time. Thirty years later, approximately two thirds of the Spanish population (68%) can benefit from a network that has increased the number of potential users around 400%.
These more than thirty years of High Speed have allowed Spain to develop one of the most modern and advanced railways of this type in the world.

The paper explains the High Speed Rail Network in Spain, how it is working and the necessary changes that have to be undertaken due to the liberalization of passenger transport and the increase in demand. The goal is an optimal use of our Network, solving the congestion of our infrastructures and offering an infrastructure prepared to absorb the demand expected by liberalization. This will allow us to democratize access to High Speed Rail through more affordable prices that cause a modal change from the private vehicle to the train, reducing emissions per passenger

In this sense and with the aim of completing our high-speed network, in recent years we have put into service several lines as, the Madrid-Galicia High Speed Line, some sections of the High-Speed Line for the connection with the Portuguese border (between Plasencia and Badajoz), some sections for the connection with the French border through the Basque Country, the Chamartín-Atocha -Torrejón de Velasco section, and the arrival of High Speed to Murcia. We have also inaugurated a new Traffic Control Centre in León which works in network with other centres that we have throughout Spain, with systems that are a reference in the world. This allows us to optimize capacity and efficiently manage our large rail network.

4557 20 September 2022 at 2:10 pm Svetlana Grechka Project closeout as an important part of project conclusion Engineering and handbooks (Engineering and handbooks ) Construction project, Closeout

A transportation construction project is typically viewed as the active phase of building public infrastructure. It is a series of phases with a beginning and an end, all of which need to be executed for a successful project.
Project closeout activities are important parts of the project and perhaps some of the hardest. They ensure the recording of project documents and deliverables, accounting and archiving organizational assets, making final payments, releasing resources, and communicating with the stakeholders during the stage of a project completion.
The main challenge of this project phase is shifting focus from execution to closeout which requires a change in mindset from being “done” to being “complete”. Project closure is not just a milestone, but a critical process for a successful conclusion of a project.
This presentation will highlight the specific steps that were taken for the North Metro Commuter Rail Line project to be concluded and will cover the lessons learned that can be applied for future rail projects.

4560 21 September 2022 at 3:50 am Dexiang ZHANG Overview on Key Technologies of China High-speed Railway

Yuding ZHANG

() High-speed railway, key technologies

China high-speed railway has made remarkable achievements. In order to promote China high-speed railway to the world, we must comprehensively summarize the key technologies of China high-speed railway. The high-speed railway is a large and complex modern system consisting of multiple subsystems, including: permanent way engineering, high-speed trains, traction power supply, OCS technology, train operation control, transportation organization, passenger transport services, operation and maintenance, disaster prevention and safety, etc. With the purpose to optimize the high-speed railway system, it is necessary to match and coordinate various subsystems with different functions. This paper first briefly introduces China high-speed railway, then elaborates the key technologies of each subsystem of China high-speed railway, and then, in related sections, briefs the ticketing system and the disaster prevention and safety guarantee technologies of China’s intelligent high-speed railway, finally, makes some suggestions on strengthening the promotion of China high-speed railway to the world.

4571 26 September 2022 at 12:27 pm BAKI BURAK ACIL High-Speed Rail: Is the speed of the planet accessible to all? An accessibility review for a High-Speed Station at the capital of Türkiye: Ankara High-Speed Train Station Inclusive and accessible facilties for all (Inclusive and accessible facilties for all ) accessibility, inclusive

Ankara High Speed ​​​​Train Station Building, which was opened on October 29, 2016 and is in the service of the public with a daily capacity of 50.000 passengers, is expected to be used by the public a lot with its platforms, shopping center, cafes and restaurants, cinemas, meeting halls and hotel where 12 high-speed train sets can dock at the same time; appears as a building complex. High-speed train journeys can be made to Eskişehir, Istanbul, Konya and Karaman from this huge building, which spans an area of ​​194.460 square meters in total. Well, can this great destination, where the Sivas line will be opened soon, inclusive for everyone, is it accessible to everyone?
With the law 5378 enacted by the Republic of Turkey in 2005, ensuring the accessibility of public and private institutions is a legal requirement. Pursuant to the “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities” (CRPD), which was opened for signature by the UN and to which the Republic of Turkey completed its ratification process on 28.10.2009, full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities was encouraged. With the process that started with this contract, the issue of accessibility has also entered the agenda of the transportation sector, and project design and implementation studies for the accessibility of stations and stations in railways have accelerated.
Does Ankara High Speed ​​​​Train Station, whose accessibility must be ensured by law, perform its function as an inclusive and accessible station for everyone? In this study, it is aimed to reveal the results in terms of accessibility by examining the “Accessibility Monitoring and Inspection Form for Buildings” issued by Ministry of Family and Social Services, of Ankara YHT Station, which has been serving for 6 years, and to shed light on the design processes of the YHT Stations to be built later.

4573 26 September 2022 at 12:55 pm OZAN YAZICI Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties Investigation of High-Power Diode Laser-Treated R260 Grade Rail Steels

Prof. Dr. Suat YILMAZ – Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul University–Cerrahpasa
Selim YILDIRIM – Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul University–Cerrahpasa

Maintenance (incl. tools) (Maintenance (incl. tools) ) Rail surface treatment, High-power diode laser

In the current study, high-power diode laser surface treatment was implemented to R260 grade
steel with three different processing temperatures (1100 C, 1200 C, and 1300 C) at the laser
power of 1750 W and scanning speed of 6 mm/s, in order to identify the effect of various
processing temperatures on the mechanical and metallurgical performance. According to the test results, the
laser-treated sample at 1300 C showed much better mechanical performance among the other
laser-treated ones. It was found that the laser-treated sample at 1300 C had about 3 times
more surface hardness, a 43 pct increase in yield strength, and a 53 pct increase in toughness
value compared to the untreated sample. Mietallurgical iexaminations showed that this surface
treatment did not only generate a martensitic structure with a certain depth but also provided
the formation of a fine pearlitic structure contributing to an increase in the mechanical
properties. Consequently, it was found that the processing temperature is one of the critical
factors affecting the mechanical properties in the laser hardening process. Moreover, the results
showed that this treatment method may be an alternative method in order to increase
mechanical properties of existing rail steels online without the need for rail disassembly,
reducing operational costs.

4575 26 September 2022 at 3:24 pm Carsten Lotz A global conjoint analysis shows: Speed and price are key decision criteria for rail

Raphaelle Chapuis
Moritz Motyka

New trends, mobility changes (New trends, mobility changes ) Customer decision criteria, Rail competitiveness

Understanding customer preferences to make rail travel more attractive and increase rail modal share is valuable for decision makers in the rail sectors including operators, infrastructure manager as well as policy makers. Yet, most customer research relies on identifying attributes that generally matter for travelers, resulting in a wide range of different criteria (e.g., comfort, speed, price, safety, accessibility). While these criteria might be relevant for customer satisfaction, they hardly shed light on what actually makes people to decide in favor of or against taking the train, compared to alternative modes of transport like the car.
To better understand actual decision criteria, we have conducted a conjoint experiment with more than 6,000 participants across 9 countries in Europe, North America, and Asia, simulating more than 100,000 hypothetical travel decisions. Results show that across geographies, price is by far the most important decision criterion, followed by the overall travel time. In comparison, additional features like comfort, added services, or sustainability considerations matter far less – while customers generally state that these aspects are important to them, for the actual decision making they are hardly relevant.
The findings imply that decision makers in the rail sector that are concerned with raising rail modal share should first and foremost focus on price and travel times. For long-distance trips, high-speed railway connections therefore have a clear competitive advantage for becoming a widely used means of transport. In most cases, only high-speed lines are able to compete with car or plane in terms of travel time. The study with its unique database thus underlines the importance of high-speed rail. The methodology of the study also offers a tool for high speed operators to strike the right balance in pricing, speed, service offering by customer segment.

4577 27 September 2022 at 10:25 am Rajendra Prasad Planning and Execution of High Speed Rail in India Viaducts (Viaducts ) High- Speed Rail in India

Planning and Execution for a High Speed Rail Corridors, in India.
India is a vast country and ideally suited for high speed rail system. On February 12, 2016, National High-Speed Rail Corporation Limited (NHSRCL) was incorporated under the Ministry of Railways to implement the country’s first HSR project between two commercial hubs Mumbai and Ahmedabad (known as MAHSR) with Japanese financial and technical assistance. As per the MoU between the Government of India and Government of Japan, approximately 81% of the project cost will be funded by loan from JICA. High speed trains on Mumbai-Ahmedabad High Speed Rail Corridor will operate at a speed of 320 Km/hr covering a distance 508 Km and 12 Stations. With a limited stop service, it will cover this distance in 1 hr. and 58 mins and all stops service will take 2 hr. 57 min. Operational Control centre for MAHSR corridor will be located at Sabarmati. Approximately 92% of the high-speed railway tack will be elevated through viaducts (as shown in the image) and bridges. Tunnel will be a single tube with 13.2 meters diameter 21 Km long to be executed by both NATM and TBM methods. Private land required for the project have been acquired primarily through consent award. The civil works in 352 km of HSR corridor has already commenced. Till July, 45.43 % of Piles, 22.69 % of Piers have been erected. Girder erection using FLSM has also commenced and more than 5 km of the Girders have been launched. For the construction of viaduct superstructures of 508 km long, MAHSR, the State-of-the-Art construction methodologies like Full Span Launching Methodology (FSLM) has been adopted. The heaviest PSC Box Girder weighing 975 MT and of 40-meter length will be used for the first time in the construction industry in India for MAHSR project. Generally, for spans above 60m, Steel Truss girders have been used. All the track tenders have been awarded and the process for electrical, S&T and Rolling Stock contracts have been initiated.

4579 27 September 2022 at 12:00 pm FRANCISCO JAVIER RODRIGUEZ BAREA COMPETE OR COLLABORATE. THE IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED Intramodal competition (Intramodal competition ) industrial property, technological surveillance

The year 2021 was declared the European Year of the Railway. This initiative of the European Commission aimed to highlight the benefits of the railway as a sustainable, intelligent and safe means of transport. The war in Ukraine and the energy crisis have further promoted the necessary decarbonisation of mobility and the need to have clean, efficient and non-polluting public transport where the railway plays an important role. The Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) for the railway sector in Europe sets out how a new program of technical and operational innovation can transform the contribution of railways to mobility in Europe, addressing the needs of rail users, the economy and society, and the protection of the natural environment.
Innovation will be the lever of transformation of the railway mode. By 2050, rail transport in Europe is expected to be the backbone of an intermodal ‘Mobility as a Service’ in and out of cities, for both passengers and freight, meeting the needs of customers, EU citizens and the society. This implies solving many of the challenges that the railway has and that go through the development of advanced interoperable train control systems, intelligent and autonomous vehicles, development of a new advanced traffic management, new passenger communication systems, etc. Challenges that define the roadmap for the necessary digitization and automation of rail transport for its subsequent incorporation into a new concept of door-to-door mobility demanded by citizens.

The study defines a technological surveillance process applicable to high-speed rail, and analyzes the market forecast for the different solutions to the challenges posed. Through the analysis of patents, it is studied what is being patented applicable to the railway, who is developing the technologies, what is the market interest and level of maturity of the same.

This study will provide knowledge on compliance or not with the SRIA.

4582 27 September 2022 at 12:33 pm David SARFATTI How UIC Standardisation facilitate the digitalization of Passenger Rail Distribution Distribution (Distribution ) Digitalization, Distribution

After presenting UIC global organization, I will present OSDM, eTCD, FCB and URT UIC collective European solutions for train ticket distribution, control and fulfillment. It allows UIC to make a positive contribution to the environmental, social, and economic sustainability of the communities served by railways.

4583 27 September 2022 at 3:02 pm Michele Gesualdi Marrying Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) with Building Information Modeling (BIM): the case study of the Napoli-Bari High-Speed Rail corridor

Salvatore Antonio Biancardo
Davide Savastano
Mattia Intignano
Ilaria Henke
Francesca Pagliara

Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) Cost-Benefit Analysis, Building Information Model

The world of infrastructure design is as wide as well as complex. Technical complexity is often accompanied by strong environmental and social impacts. Over the years, the problem of finding sustainable and technically satisfactory solutions has found an answer in new methods and often in new technologies.
Carrying out correctly and objectively a CBA (Cost Benefit Analysis) means planning and designing sustainable infrastructures.
For the case of infrastructures, it is very important to demonstrate in the most efficient way the impacts that would result from its construction, and to show them to all the involved stakeholders.
In this context, the marriage between the CBA and BIM (Building Information Modeling) becomes a powerful visualization tool for stakeholders providing them a transparent summary of the costs and benefits of the project, within the evaluation analysis of the decision-making process. CBA-BIM is the union between infrastructural and transport planning which place Stakeholder Engagement as a central planning activity aiming at reducing the subjectivity of the analyses.
The motivations lying behind the integrated use of the CBA with BIM are the transparency, standardisation and automatization of the decision-making process. Indeed, from their union, there should be a decrease of the costs related to the protests of the stakeholders not involved bringing unnecessary delays in the construction works.
This paper shows an application of this framework, with a BIM based design approach, to the case of the Napoli-Bari High-Speed Rail corridor, currently under construction. The BIM based procedure proposed can be easily adapted to different uses according to the objectives.
This work provides a contribution to the current literature since it is the first which considers the integration between BIM and CBA in the infrastructural context.

4587 28 September 2022 at 10:56 am Juan Montero Competition in High-Speed Services in Spain: Active Infrastructure Managing for a competitive market

Rodolfo Ramos

Rail governance and regulation (Rail governance and regulation ) Regulation, competition

Three competitors are expected to provide High-Speed Services in Spain starting 2022. The process of reform to open the service to competition has been led by the ADIF AV, the Spanish Infrastructure Manager.
Due to congestion in some segments of the network (the main stations), ADIF could not accommodate all the capacity requests by potential newcomers. ADIF optimized existing track capacity in the form of three framework agreements for track capacity, and a tender was organized to sign such contracts.
Further measures have been adopted in stations to optimize the use of space, including the resumption of services previously provided by Railway Undertakings (internal logistics for food and beverages, attention to disabled passengers).
The paper will analyze in detail the liberalization strategy in Spain and provide data about the results in terms of new services, patronage, etc.
Furthermore, the paper will frame this national experience into a wider tendency in Europe of Infrastructure Managers adopting a more active approach as coordinators of the railway system. Other examples will be provided.

4590 29 September 2022 at 7:11 am ALPEREN KANIK Simulation-based performance assessment of passenger rail services in the train virtual coupling framework

Prof. Nicola Sacco
Dr. Federico Gallo

Station capacity management (Station capacity management ) Virtual Coupling, Performance Assessment

In recent years, the transportation industry has been looking for solutions within itself to issues such as the increasing population, mobility demand and congestion seen around the world. Ultimately, the idea of virtual coupling (VC) has been put forward for an innovative and sustainable solution in the railway sector as a result of the increasing levels and knowledge regarding automation and wireless communication technologies.

Virtual coupling is an approach based on automated and connected trains able to virtually merge together to form convoys that can thus travel at the shortest possible safe distance, instead of being physically linked.

VC concept can allow the railway sector to cope with challenges like guaranteeing a higher capacity, flexibility, safety, cost efficiency and degree of automation to increase its share in the market. This study will address and evaluate the opportunity provided by VC concept of dynamically changing train compositions and capacities over a railway network, by evaluating the performance of this concept in providing an efficient and cost effective service for passengers. Simulations with the software ExtendSim have been performed and the relevant results will be presented and discussed.

The aim of the study is to examine the results of a problem with a defined concept in detail in the simulation environment. As an evaluation method, capacity analysis and platform density are discussed. The main contributions of the study are as follows:

• the use of a discrete space model designed taking into account the considered scenario;

• the development of a station model that can perform splitting and merging of carriages and of a passenger flow model to evaluate system performances;

• the analysis of the performances of the simulation results with regards to the level of service and the passenger queue lengths in different scenarios as a result of the case study application.

4592 29 September 2022 at 7:40 am AHMET GEYIK A model for simulating and optimizing passenger flows in rail stations New trends, mobility changes (New trends, mobility changes ) Passenger Flows, Virtual Coupling

Rail transportation is drawing an increasing number of travelers because to its improving performances such as faster speeds, punctuality, capacity and comfort. The number of pedestrians sharing the space, as well as the station’s spatial layout – including the size and location of various rail stations, how these areas are connected to each other, and location of vertical circulation elements influence pedestrian flow in rail transit stations.

The pedestrian flows increase in railway stations generates inefficiencies and discomfort while the level of service of public transit networks Knowledge of pedestrian demand is a necessary requirement for effective railway station functioning. The pedestrian movements within a station are complex, which can quickly lead to a variety of issues such as interweaving, disputes in the main walking area, and unequal usage of the amenities.

The destination within the station changes depending on the virtual coupling timetable. Given their actual destinations, all passengers are supposed to be notified about the exact point they must reach along the platform via appropriate signs and possibly applications.

The objective of this study is to identify and develop a model to optimize passenger routes in stations, particularly when train composition is variable, with the goal of reducing travel times and congestion. In addition, shows that different destinations depending on time. To enhance the design and management of railway access facilities, there is a general need to better assess pedestrian traffic demand within train stations.

Contributions of the study:

• the formulation of an optimization problem to identify the shortest routes in stations supplied with O/D pairings
• the usage of a discrete space model constructed with all potential pathways and the network design graph
• the development of a pedestrian flow simulation model to assess system performance


Candan Gokceoglu, Hacettepe University, Geological Engineering Department, Ankara, Turkey
Ahmet Sirin, General Directorate of Turkish Railway System, Ankara, Turkey
Asli Can, Iksa Engineering Company, Ankara, Turkey
Emre Turk, Akademi Zemin Company, Ankara, Turkey
Suat Gullu, General Directorate of Turkish Railway System, Ankara, Turkey

In infrastructure (In infrastructure ) ground improvement, inclined deep soil mixing

In this study, the ground improvement application that applied under the live railway bridge’s approach
embankments in Sivas, Turkey was investigated as a case study. The soil profile is mainly composed of
orangish conglomerate, clay, silty sandy clay, and under claystone, and mudstone units in the study area.
As a soil improvement method, the Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) technique based on the principle of
simultaneous mixing of the ground while injecting water-cement mix, was selected. The application
of DSM columns is designed to be 45 degrees inclined relative to horizontal, in order to reach the deepest point of the soft clay
units for better improvement against settlement. The core samples were taken from the DSM columns and
the compressive strength tests were performed in the laboratory. The results were higher than the minimum
designed values. Obviously, DSM columns were applied successfully, and the excessive
settlement problem was solved.

4598 30 September 2022 at 12:13 pm Kenta TAKASHINA Resilience initiatives of a climate change and disaster in JR EAST Railway resilience to extreme weather events and emergencies (Railway resilience to extreme weather events and emergencies ) climate change, HSR Resilience

Japan has long been a country of natural disasters, and many sad experiences have led to the creation and dissemination of various countermeasures to minimize damage and speed recovery. However, in recent years, extremely severe natural disaster such as large-scale typhoons, localized torrential rains, and heavy snowstorms often occur in a short period of time, causing extensive damage that exceeds the expectations of conventional countermeasures.
Climate change and global warming are considered to be one of the causes of such extreme weather events. Such extreme weather events have had a major impact on railway operations, such as the derailment of high-speed coaches due to earthquakes and the flooding and submergence of coaches. Railway operators are required to respond to such unexpected extreme weather events by minimizing damage while enhancing safety and continuing operations.
East Japan Railway Company(JR East) has made “safety” its top priority and has been making effort to improve safety. The railway system is a system that integrates expertise from a variety of fields. Although convenient devices and systems are emerging, when introducing them, JR East carefully checks and assesses not only their individual functions, but also the railway system as a whole to maintain fail-safety and improve the level of safety.
 In this presentation, I would like to introduce the general situation of JR East, the Shinkansen network and its features, as well as the earthquake countermeasures that have been implemented on Shinkansen lines to date, including structural reinforcement, earthquake countermeasures for rolling stock, and systems that detect earthquakes in their early stages, issue warnings, and make emergency stops before they occur. In addition, regarding countermeasures against flooding at work shop and other facilities due to recent abnormal weather conditions, especially torrential rains, I would like to introduce examples of JR East’s efforts regarding a sy

4603 3 October 2022 at 3:44 pm Charles Langlet Alstom’s experience on reducing energy consumption of high-speed trains Energy measurement and efficiency (Energy measurement and efficiency ) Energy, Aerodynamism

Resistance to motion is a key parameter of very high-speed trains. Reducing this parameter, combined with improvement of traction drive and auxiliaries’ efficiency, allows to consume less energy to maintain train speed at a high level.
Alstom has worked a lot in identifying the different components of the resistance to motion characterizing the parameters influencing the rolling resistance but merely the aerodynamic resistance. The intervention will focus on the way we propose to reduce the form drag (improved aerodynamic design of the drive unit, bogie fairing, limitation of inter-body cavities and gangways, local active control of the flow by suction / blowing) and as much as possible the friction drag (optimization of surfaces). Furthermore, Alstom has focused a lot on developing state-of-the-art components ensuring better efficiency and minimizing energy consumption, still offering the same level of performance and comfort.
The cost / energy ratio used is very advantageous, with a constant search for optimization especially on the aerodynamic and energy efficiency. Other strategies are effective such as optimizing the interior volume of the train (double deck instead of single deck for more passengers), optimized driving management by the train driver, etc.

4605 3 October 2022 at 3:51 pm Anne Bigand Passenger experience for high-speed train: delighting travellers to provide a cost-effective service Seat capacity, on board service and internal design (Seat capacity, on board service and internal design ) Passenger experience, Enhanced mobility

Passenger experience has become a differentiator within Alstom. With operators aiming to secure their business model, we have positioned this asset at the heart of our design process. More than optimised capacity and flexible modularity due to increased demand, the objective is to build a memorable journey to keep passengers coming back.
– How to anticipate future behaviour and answer to the different passenger types?
– How to identify latest technologies to meet future needs?
– How to build an efficient, comfortable and secure service to feel welcomed?
– How to attract passengers in the face of an economical, ecological and health crisis?
– How to ensure the best perceived quality in a competitive market?
– How to create a meaningful and rewarding mobility in passenger daily life?
All questions that Alstom will address in this intervention, while presenting solutions from its range of high-speed trains, designed with crossed expertise, to enhance the passenger experience

4607 3 October 2022 at 3:56 pm Eddy Thésée Collaboration in rail cybersecurity for standardisation and supply chain management Protection against emerging threats (including cyber security) (Protection against emerging threats (including cyber security) ) Cybersecurity, Standardization

The growing digitalization in railways is supported by increased connectivity, heavy use of software and new delivery models. This is allowing to support several new business and operational scenario paving the way to safe and sustainable mobility.
The flipside of this evolution is the absolute need to deploy cybersecurity tailored to the railway context. This cybersecurity must be sustainable over decades (to accommodate systems life cycle), efficient in operations (to reduce downtime, and avoid complex deployment and operation) and compliant with the safety standards and regulations. The railway market relies on a network of components makers and system integrator providing complex solutions and services to operators.
Beyond the deployment of new technologies, new delivery and operation models, the railway industry must cope with a fast-changing context and an evolving threat landscape. The security controls defined in railway cybersecurity, will help to address the challenges of safe and secure mobility. This is out of reach without additional coordination and end to end approaches: collaboration between all stakeholders is a must.
The management of the supply chain, and the definition and the deployment of standards across the industry are two domains where collaboration can make a difference and make goals achievable.

4609 3 October 2022 at 4:10 pm Antoni Munar High speed train CBM and Predictive Maintenance in the era of Big Data Intelligent Systems Big data management (Big data management ) Predictive Maintenance, Machine Learning

Condition monitoring and predictive maintenance are an integral part of the intelligent infrastructure concept. Railway high speed equipment must be continuously monitored, and disruptions anticipated in almost real time, in a sheer scale of a daunting diversity of assets and advanced algorithmic approaches, while ensuring optimized life cycle costs.

In the present time, the combination of open-source big data processing technologies coupled with freely available machine learning and statistical model deployment frameworks developed by leading technology internet companies, offer the opportunity for the operationalization of diverse CBM and Predictive Maintenance systems in real world operations at scale.

In this presentation, the Alstom experience is exemplified with high-speed train projects such as NTV in Italy, and TGV-M in France. Best practices, achieved results and lessons learnt in implementing and industrializing such CBM and Predictive Maintenance systems, comprising different statistical and machine learning approaches developed with modern open-source technologies and software DevOps and MLOps methodologies will be discussed.

4611 3 October 2022 at 4:14 pm Thomas Denis How ETCS continues to support High-Speed Network through Hybrid Level 3 technology Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) (Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) ) Signalling, ETCS

One of the primary challenges of the transport sector is to accommodate growing capacity in an increasingly competitive environment. This requires signalling manufacturers to offer easily adaptable, competitive (i.e. low investment and low operational cost) signalling solutions capable of increasing train frequency with minimum effort. Since the introduction of first High Speed lines in the early 80’, the commercial success of High Speed Trains has never declined. The deployment of High Speed Networks now expands nearly all over the world.
Alstom’s game-changing ETCS Hybrid Level 3 solution offers today the digital train control technology of the future while facilitating the transition toward a full ETCS Level 3 deployment with its moving block technology. Behind its development are more than 30 years of experience in providing high performance solutions according to the latest interoperability standards.

4613 3 October 2022 at 4:41 pm Romain Bosramiez Next developments for tilting high speed trains Accessibility, design and comfort (Accessibility, design and comfort ) Tilting, Passenger comfort

During second half of the 20th Century, railway operators challenged the rail industry to increase permitted line speeds for their rolling stock. The development of tilting technologies has allowed trains to travel faster on the existing track, thereby becoming the most cost efficient solution to increasing ridership. Running faster along the same track required a new optimisation of the vehicle dynamics which also involved a degree of compromise in comfort, that is until today.

Alstom tilting technology has had several decades of building up know-how, concepts and components. Mainly developed on the Pendolino trains it has also been integrated in other rolling stock, both built by Alstom or by other manufacturers. The latest generation delivers benefit to operators from continuous improvements that have used the limits of performance imposed by the track whilst remaining within the broad margins of safety. Recently R&D work shifted to focus on improvements in passenger comfort and reliability. These efforts have yielded results in the new generation of Alstom’s tilting control technology: Tiltronix™

So what makes this generation of tilting so revolutionary? The answer is simple: for the first time a tilting technology offers, while travelling faster, better passenger experience than non-tilting trains. This assertion is confirmed by the conclusion of research in to passenger comfort published by independent medical institutions.

This papers describes the principles of our tilting technology and the new developments for the future, with special focus on passenger comfort, and shows how revolutionary concepts have been turned into reality a superior level of passenger comfort compared to trains of all types.

4616 4 October 2022 at 3:21 pm Jörg Marienhagen Marienhagen Hyperloop: The Fifth Mode of Transport? New trends, mobility changes (New trends, mobility changes ) Hyperloop Technology, System Comparison

During the recent years, Hyperloop Technology created a boost in research for this topic. Being initiated by different companies across the world following different technical approaches, the main question arises: Is Hyperloop a suitable new mode of transport? Is it the “Fifth Mode of Transport”? Is hyperloop bridging the gap for both speed and distance between high-speed rail and airplane? In this presentation, I will give a (technical) system overview, will provide some overarching up-to-date technology facts, and mainly introduce the audience to a system comparison between conventional (high-speed) rail, maglev technology, and hyperloop. A multi-angle view will be given including operational, constructional, environmental aspects as well as information about CAPEX and OPEX, station development and topology / alignment. Energy consumption and emissions will also be discussed. Being independent from any industry, Deutsche Bahn is to be seen as a self-determined Thought Leader for this topic.

4619 5 October 2022 at 7:24 pm Manuel Weiß The Role of High-Speed Rail Accessibility for the Location Choice of Knowledge-Intensive Firms. An Interview Survey in Germany Wider socio-economical impacts (Wider socio-economical impacts ) Knowledge-Intensive Firms, Location Choices

Knowledge-intensive companies have been identified as important drivers of urban development, increasingly shaping the economic geography of cities and regions. Therefore, we assume that characteristics of space, particularly accessibility, significantly affect how and where knowledge-intensive firms locate and develop their networks for knowledge creation.

In this context, the advent of High-Speed Rail (HSR) contributed to a significant change in accessibilities in recent decades. Consequently, HSR might be associated with the spatial distribution of knowledge-intensive firms. Subsequently, we focus on the relationship between the accessibility increase around HSR stations and the location choices of knowledge-intensive firms.

The central questions are how significant HSR influences the location choices in favour of the station area, what are other decisive locational factors and how does HSR shape entrepreneurial networks of spatial and relational proximity.

Therefore, we conducted problem-centred interviews with firm representatives of 49 knowledge-intensive firms located close to HSR stations in Germany. According to the principle of maximum variation cases, the eight identified HSR stations allow insights into various circumstances and abstraction from case-specific outcomes to generalise the significance of HSR analytically.

The results provide differentiated perspectives: Firms rarely locate at HSR stations solely because of HSR. Rather, factors such as regional ties and especially urban amenities seem decisive. However, transport accessibility – and thus also HSR – is often considered equally important in shaping business activities so that networks of temporary proximity are formed. Overall, a mutually reinforcing set of favourable location factors becomes evident, making HSR station areas highly attractive locations for knowledge-intensive businesses.

4620 5 October 2022 at 7:55 pm Asghar Bahramali An ultra low power analog IoT platform for high speed rail bridge health monitoring

Marisa Lopez Vallejo

Internet of Things (IoT) (Internet of Things (IoT) ) IoT, bridge health monitoring

Railway bridges are adversely influenced by the train speed. To mention a few, are their resonance vibration and ballast destabilisation. So, rigorous inspections would be necessary both to improve the passenger safety and comfort and to extend the life of these bridges. But, the traditional ways of dealing with the bridges are expensive and normally need much time and labor effort to be performed.
The bridge health monitoring concept is a new approach by which the real-time status of the bridges is monitored. In this way the predictive maintenance and consequently the proactive safety control of the bridges could be accomplished that in the long term result in relieving the expenditure of maintaining of the bridges and realizing an efficient, more reliable and cost effective HSR operation.
Bridge health monitoring cannot be achieved without knowing the online condition of the bridges. This could be done using Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and nodes. Each IoT node has its own electronic circuitry. In outdoor applications (like the bridge health monitoring case) there is a limited or no access to the main supply source. So, IoT nodes are supplied with local batteries. Thus, in these applications the power consumption should be kept as low as possible due to the energy constraint. Low available area is another constraint that the designers of the electronic circuits for outdoor applications are faced with.
In this paper an ultra low power analog circuitry (platform), which has been designed in 40nm technology is presented to be used as the front-end circuitry in IoT nodes of HSR bridge health monitoring applications. The platform features state of the art resistor-less, sub-threshold biased, CMOS-only, ultra low power consumption configurations, having very small size. The platform also shows an acceptable resiliency against process, line voltage and temperature variations that fits the requirements of IoT outdoor applications.

4621 5 October 2022 at 9:03 pm Jean-Bruno DELRUE MESEA: a story for the sake of High Speed Rail operational excellence Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) High Speed Rail Maintenance, Operational excellence

The story of MESEA opened in june 2011 after the award of the SEA concession to VINCI and their partners. We are in charge, together with our 200 people, of maintaining the Tours-Bordeaux high-speed line for the next 40 years in order to deliver a safe and reliable train path at the most efficient cost to the high-speed operators and their customers.
Starting from scratch an O&M company where the incumbent has demonstrated for decades its operational merits in the high speed rail maintenance was not easy. Nevertheless, after 5 years of operation, MESEA has reached high reliability, availability, maintainability and safety standards and can be considered as a top-tier European High Speed Rail maintainer.
How did we manage the ramp-up? How did we build and make live our core values? How did we succeed?
From organisation innovation to daily use of AI enabling us to move first from systematic to conditional maintenance and then to failure prediction, this paper will describe how we built altogether a fantastic journey for the sake of railway operational excellence.

4623 6 October 2022 at 6:46 am Usame Ekici Analysing passenger characteristics of High Speed Rail and Comparing with Air Transport for Planning New Services Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) passenger characteristics, high speed rail

Travel needs of people have been increasing day by day in the changing World; therefore proper planning strategies of contemporary transport systems such as high-speed rail are gaining much more importance. One of the key determinants of transport planning strategies is the proper analysis of passenger characteristics, which are revealed national travel surveys.
High speed rail is known as the most competitive transport mode for air transportation. However, passenger profiles of high speed rail and air may vary. In order to understand the nature of this competition, characteristics and travel behaviour of these passengers must be well understood. In this study, a comparison in air and high speed passengers’ characteristics was made through the analyses of national travel survey conducted by the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure of Turkey.

4628 6 October 2022 at 1:48 pm Mario Tartaglia HS competition in Europe: the Freccarosa case

Ernesto Sicilia

Intermodal competition (Intermodal competition ) competition, Frecciarossa

High speed in Italy is synonym of competition, since more than 10 years Italian railways market is facing an unprecedent situation in which two different operators compete day by day, train by train, hour by hour on the same platforms. These market conditions helped to put the customer in the centre of the industry, increasing quality of services and focusing attention on customer needs.
The result of it was the birth of Frecciarossa and its becoming an iconic brand. And when a brand becomes iconic it is ready to fly and now Frecciarossa is flyng around Europe.
The first step has been the successful launch of service between Milan and Paris on December 2021, following in May by the launch of Paris- Lyon shuttle.
The Milan Paris connection is a very big success in terms of passengers and load factor creating a true competition with airplane due to high quality and expoliting the growing attention of customers for the most sustainablemeans of transport.
The second step is the entrance into the Spanish market where our new 20 Frecciarossa will run by November 2022 from Madrid to the main cities such as Barcelona, Valencia, aAnother big effort made by Trenitalia to bring its experience, competences and skills around Europe transforming the so-called “Italy’s Metro” in “Europe’s Metro”

4629 6 October 2022 at 1:53 pm Lorenzo Vannacci Mobile data analytics in Italian HSR stations

Mario Tartaglia
Luigi Galieni

Big data management (Big data management ) mobile data, stations

The HSR rail system in Italy and its impressive results in term of passengers changed the mobility patterns allowing moving faster between cities and regions. This phenomena has also changed the use of the station environment by passengers and visitors. This paper using big data analytics coming from the mobile phones network examines mobility inside main stations in Italy, tracing passenger behaviours, directions, waiting times and connections. The aim of this project is setting up a database with monthly update of this numbers in order to forecast passenger service needs and implement necessary service timetable adjustment.

4633 7 October 2022 at 10:58 am Ahmet BOZAT DIGITALIZATION ON RAİLWAYS

Associate professor-Murat FURAT
Colleague – Barış ATEŞ
Colleague – Fatih BOZDAĞ

Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) Digitalization, Data management, Railway Sector, World Market Growth, Product Groups, Forecast

Todays, changing consumer habits, comfort convenience, speed, environment and safety in terms of transportation by rail as
a reliable transportation route is a sustainable and efficient option comes to the fore.
Railway investments are increasingly
rising worldwide to reduce regional economic and social development disparities. According to the study of the European Rail
Industry Association (UNIFE), market growth prospects in the railway sector in the coming years, the world rail market is
expected to reach an average annual value of € 185 billion in 2016-2021, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. Railway sector
product and service providers are expected to reshape their future organizational plans in the related works in a way that will
meet customer expectations in freight and passenger transport in order to increase efficiency and quality management
within the framework of market development expectations in the coming years.
In this article, I will explain the method of communication of objects related to the solution of the derailment problem, which is a major problem in rail freight and passenger transportation and causes material and moral losses. After the solution of this problem with the method I will explain, I will share the predictions of what kind of future awaits the Railways after the solution of a major problem that causes safety and infrastructure problems in rail freight and passenger transportation.

4634 7 October 2022 at 12:26 pm Nazzareno Filippini High Speed and High Density operated by ERTMS for commercial integration

Fabio Senesi

Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) (Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) ) ERTMS, High Speed

The future evolution of the CCS framework led by the Commission aims to take advantage of the digitalisation and single market that will allow, together with the flexibility of the system, to provide economically efficient solutions both to high-performance networks but also to networks with lower requirements.
Both the ERTMS Hybrid and High Density systems (both set to be enclosed in the next TSI 2027 via Europe Rail System Pillar) are designed and thought to be deployed on the High Speed and Conventional lines to enhance capacity while ensuring a non-disruptive evolution, keeping the existing civil infrastructure as it is, thus maintaining confidence in the viability of current investments and deployments.
ERTMS Hybrid and High Density both designed to reduce the number of assets trackside, are meant to be used stand-alone (without legacy Class B system) and pave the way to ERTMS L3 operations.
The paper is intended to point out the major technical features of the systems in the perspective to be used on High Speed and Conventional lines.
The advantages and possible drawbacks are highlighted in view of the first applications on the Cities Railway Network as well as on High Speed lines.
The technical lever offered by ERTMS is exploited not only to make it a unique system (the conventional and high speed) but also to improve the operations on the big city networks where mixed traffic (IC, HS, Regional, etc) is required.
The functional integration between ERTMS and interlocking logics is taken in to account as it brings many advantages when HS and Conventional are operated concurrently.

4635 7 October 2022 at 1:28 pm Giulio Rocco Sitongia Track Access Charge reductions to promote rail traffic growth: two possible European approaches

Maria Almudena Hernando Gutierrez, Alvaro Mascaraque Sillero, Francesca Ciuffini, Emanuele Guerrera

Track and station access charges (Track and station access charges ) TAC Discount, Traffic Growth

The European Directive 34/2012 provides that the Track Access Charges (TAC) are set at the cost that is directly incurred as a result of operating the train service (Article 31); however, there are exceptions to this principle i.e. the imposition of mark-up to different market segments, if the market can bear it (Article 32). In the countries offering high-speed connections, these services are generally associated with a specific market segment that gets a higher mark-up than the others present on the network. To boost rail traffic growth, the Directive also provides the possibility to apply TAC reductions for specific traffic flows, limited in time, in order to promote the development of new railway services or encourage the use of considerably under-used lines. The possibility to apply reductions has been effectively used for high-speed services in some European countries.
This paper will illustrate the charging system of two European Infrastructure Managers: RFI for the Italian network and ADIF for the Spanish network, with a specific focus on the methodology used to apply the “discounts”. In particular, for the Spanish network, the mechanism by which the reductions are provided, will be illustrated based on the achievement of “target” traffic levels for each line / customer, according to the rules defined by the Spanish “Rail Sector Act”. For RFI, the procedure by which a catalogue of path is designed, as defined by Resolution ART 140/2017 and subsequent resolutions, and the catalogues that have been presented over the years will be described. For each IM it is necessary that these reductions ensure the financial balance between the revenues and the expenses, considering both the volume of traffic subject to reduction and the one at full tariff.
In both cases, the application of the regulatory framework by the IM, the role of the Regulatory Body and the effects that these initiatives have had on on the market will be illustrated.

4637 7 October 2022 at 2:55 pm Per Corshammar CLIMATE CHANGE CALL FOR URGENT COMMUNITY ACTION Public stakeholder Consultation and engagement (Public stakeholder Consultation and engagement ) quick planning, Inter-community-colaboration

Public stakeholders in Sweden and Norway have investigated HSR between Oslo and Gothenburg for 30 years and publiched 8 reports and promised communities along the line to enable the project. Due to the climate change 11 communities in Sweden and Norway formed a partnership to build a 256 km long high speed line between Oslo and Gothenburg 400 km/h with duration 1 hour to be open 2028.
To cut down the planning time all communities agreed on track allocation territory and station locations in 1 years time. Then a Master Design (MD) with track alignment difined the contractors was inviter 2021 for a meeting to confirm their knowledge and time schedule for the project. This means that the contractors do the Detailed Technical Design (DTD) and the communities in collaboration do the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) toghether with the national county administrative board. The result is a massive schortage of the planning process to 3 years and construction time 5 years. Comapred to the national railway authorities where planning time is over 10 – 15 years.
The urgence driven by the communities is the climate change and frustraition over national budget dispytes. Therfore “Skagerrakbanan.com” us a PPP project financed by 10 bn Euro by the communities and paid back by the revenues of the high speed line Oslo – Gothenburg.
The rapid construction of the HSR is pre-fabricated bridge element that have a minimum land use by onlu 2 % compared to embankments. It also reduce earthworks and save farming and wodlands.
Slow governmental development of HSR can be replaced by fast inter-community collaboration to battle the climate change with a zero-emission transport system.

4638 7 October 2022 at 2:58 pm Per Corshammar HSR VIADUCT REDUCE CO2 EMISSION COMPARED TO EMBANKMENTS AND TUNNELS Accessible and sustainable low-carbon infrastructure by design (Accessible and sustainable low-carbon infrastructure by design ) Prefabricated viaducts, Low carbon high speed railway solutions

To reduce CO2 emission when building HSR is important to ensure a fast break-even time to have the zero-emission-transpot system in operation. The biggest CO2 emission is during the construction time and during operation it gives a massive reduction of CO2 due to the intermodal shift from air, bus, car to high speed train and saves 0,150 kgCO2/pkm.
HSR Viaducts weight is 40 ton/meter double track compared to railway embankment 138 ton/m. The construction waste for viaducts are 61 ton/m and for embankments 105 ton/m. The viaduct reduce the masses with 140 % which means less CO2 emissions for masstransports.
By environmental engineering design and the latest use of new technologt by Skanska the viaduct design have reduced the CO2 emission from 25 000 – 35 000 ton CO2/km to 9 510 ton CO2/km. This also reduce the break-even point for the HSR viaduct form 233 million pkm to 63 million pkm. If the HSR have 12 million passanger per year the break-even point is down to 5 years. After that time the HSR is saving CO2 for 55 years compared to air, bus, car transport.
The ground preparation for the embankment use 1 662 ton CO2/km, the embankment 1 572 ton CO2/km, total 3 234 tonCO2/km. But construction time for embankemnts are 5 times longer compared to HSR Viaducts and this time 5 year with 12 million pkm/year is additionally 9 000 ton CO2 emission as a time loss polution which result in 12 324 ton CO2/km for embankment including construction time compared to HSR Viaduct 9 510 ton CO2/km. HSR Viaduct concept compared to embankments save 2 814 ton CO2/km.
This also indicate that fast construction time for new railway lines is esentual to save CO2 emission and slow long term construction time is contrubuting for worse climate on the planet.

4639 7 October 2022 at 3:01 pm Per Corshammar HIGH SPEED RAIL CREATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT Environmental and Social impact assessments & consents (Environmental and Social impact assessments & consents ) Increased life quality with HSR, HSR investmed trippel society profit

In Sweden and Norway 11 communities formed a partnership to build a 256 km long high speed line between Oslo and Gothenburg 400 km/h with duration 1 hour to be open 2028. The OECD anounced 2021 that the corridore was one of the to 20 corridores to be a mega region from Hambrg to Oslo by high speed train.
The communities studied what environmental and social effects the HSR invesntment of 10 bn Euro will generate to the region. The rusult was 2,7 times higher then the HSR invesntment.
The population growth taken out from Oslo and Gothenburg due to over-pricing was 97 450 relocated inhabitants moving to the ner HSR stations in Kungälv, Stenungsund, Uddevalla, Mölndal, Tanum, Strömstad, Halden, Sarpsborg, Rakkestad, Askim and Ski between Gothenburg and Oslo. This create new housing 38 316 to a value of 11,5 bn Euro.
New employments due to population growth was estimated to 22 869 jobs in Sweden and 25 513 in Norway generate 2,0 bn Euro/year. The companies in the area estimated that the population growth and increased economic activitie will be 1,7 bn Euro/year and the envrionmental improvement have a value of 0,6 bn Euro/year in CO2 reduction.
The communities calculated that better labour force matching with employers will reduce the social wellfare cost with 1 bn Euro/year and increase tourism by 20 %.
In a 30 years period the high speed line Skagerrakbanan.com will create an economic value of 27,4 bn Euro.
The benefit of the HSR invenstment gave the result that it gives back 2,7 times of the investment for environment and socieity and liberice the women and increases their salleries with 5000 Euro/year.

4640 7 October 2022 at 3:07 pm Per Corshammar HSRF – HIGH SPEED RAIL FRIGHT FOR NORWAY Functional & technical specifications (Functional & technical specifications ) High Speed Railway Freight

Norway estimate that the seafood buisness will grow 5 times more then 2022 and be larger in economic terms then the gas and oil industry within 5 years and deliver 150 million meals per day in the world.
Most of the seafood industry is located at Lofoten in north Norway and is transported by lorry and train through Sweden to Oslo and Europe in adition to air transport to USA and Asia. The transport system in north Norway suffering capacity for the growing seafood market and therfore a need for expansion of the railway system is urging. This also gives a conflict with the reindeer and native traditional buisness in nature that is void by HSR bridge concepts between Tromsö and Bodö on the North Norway trunk and HSR line 250 km/h.
To improve the competition for the seafood all transports have to be zero-emission-transport and more energy efficient. This means HSRF high speed rail freight from Lofoten to Europe in 1 day and within 4 days to Asia in the future. It also gives new oportunities in the post pandemic market where internet trade have increased significantly. With HSRF the parcal, post and product will be transported environmental firendly.
The OECD anounced 2021 that the corridore between Hamburg and Oslo has to be adopted with high speed train to improve the economy in the area. This include the HSRF system to reduce the lorries along the west coast.
The pay-lod is 500 ton in each high speed train set and the seafoof is loaded in contaner bins in the same system as Air freight. One disadvantage with HSRF is the transport profit that is lower then passenger traffic.
The first HSRF train between Oslo and Hamburg is schedueld by 2030 and from Lofoten 2035 to support the massive development of the Norwegian seafood business.

4641 7 October 2022 at 3:12 pm Per Corshammar ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY AND COST EFFECTIVE HIGH SPEED LINE DESIGN Viaducts (Viaducts ) High speed Railway viaducts, Pre-fabricated bridge element

Conventional railway embankment construction design consume high use of land, huge volumes of building material and transports, high energy consumption, long construction time and high investment cost for society. It also effect a high degree of inconvinonce for society and creates barier effects. With landscape bridges for high speed lines it dramatically reduces the use of land with a factor of 3, it reduces the use of building material with a factor of 4, it contains of more recycled resourses and renewible energy by a factor of 50, and reduce the construction time with a factor 5. This improvments in construction design efficency in high speed line design result in an economic impact of the total project cost that result in high proftible investments for high speed lines compared to conventional railway lines for society. The return of investments falls from 60 years for conventional railways to 20 years for high speed lines.
The high speed line design means that built in functions such as noice reduction, catinary pole fundaments, service roads, snow protection, escape routs and protection of suronding environment and preservation of agriculture land and animals along the high speed line are achived to minimum cost, it is less expensive then embankment design.
The sientific results and analys of 32 000 variables are obtained by the high speed line project in Sweden under supervision of the Swedish Environmental Resurch Institute deliverd to The Swedish Railway Administration.

4642 7 October 2022 at 3:14 pm Per Corshammar DESIGN AND PRODUCTION PHILOSOPHY FOR HIGH SPEED TUNNELS Tunnels (Tunnels ) High speed railway tunnel design, Aerodynamics in tunnels

Large investements is schedueld in the Nordic market for tunnels an the market value is 530 bn SEK. Tunnel design is esentual for cost and producten time and also for energy consumption for high speed trains. Tunnel Boring Machines, TBM:s has improved technology and are able to concer hard rock, sand, clay and even silt. The latest TBM:s are Earth Pressure Balanced Machenes that can handle various ground conditions at the same time. Tunnel design can be single pipe double track tunnels, duplex- or even triplextunnels. The Swedish Railway Administration funded a resurch and development project to identify guidelines for selection of single or double pipes tunnel for high speed lines and conventional lines. It also investigated what construction method that is best för tunnel construction in Scandinavia. All aspects was investigated and analyzed to select what tunnel type and construction method should be chosen in different environments, traffic consepts and speeds. The result of the resurch was that single pipe tunnels for duble track up to 13 km was preferble then double pipe tunnels and more time and cost effective. The selection of construction method was determend to the type of rock hardness and the drill and blast method is limited to hard rock. TBM:s is more efficent to be used in hard rock, sand, clay and silt with or without ground water expected. In urban areas TBM:s is more environmental frendly then drill and blast method. The sientific results are obtained by analysis between several tunnel projects in Scandinavia and several experts in tunnel safety, rock engineering, tunnel drilling, tunnel engineers and railway experts under supervision of The Swedish Railway Administration.

4646 9 October 2022 at 8:41 pm MARIE JEANNE LOPEZ ANAYA ACCESIBILITY – THE HIGH SPEED SUCCES IN SPAIN – RENFE WITH THE CUSTUMERS Service quality (marketing)(Service quality (marketing)) ACCESIBILITY, INCLUSIVE


Public companies must work with an eye on the well-being of the citizens they serve. This maxim could be translated, in the field of rail transport, into the commitment to move towards an increasingly efficient, sustainable and inclusive mobility.
The journey to be made at high speed to achieve a railway system that places People at the center and achieves social inclusion entails the internalization of concepts aimed at achieving Universal Accessibility.
All the measures adopted in the Spanish high-speed policy are organized around the five main areas or elements involved in the travel chain, taking into account their points of interrelationship, such as:
 Trains
 Stations
 Services
 Information and communication technologies
 People

4650 10 October 2022 at 9:10 am Hassan Alsalamat Relationship between Track maintenance cost and speed In operations (In operations ) Speed, Maintenance & track wear

The dynamic effect of the high speed trains are affecting the maintenance const of infrastructure, specially of tracks and rails. in this paper, i would like to describe this relationship for the operator to be able to find the optimal speed as well as to be able to calculate the required revenue, if the speed should exceed the optimal limit for minimum maintenance costs.

4652 10 October 2022 at 11:37 am David Martin High speed competition in Spain. New challenges. Market changes (Market changes ) competition, challenges

How renfe is preparing for the entry of new operators in an uncertain environment marked by the start-up after two years of slowdown in commercial activity caused by covid, an energy crisis and an environment marked by the war in Ukraine. And all of this brought to the national level with the arrival of new competitors on the main high-speed corridors.
What are the main challenges, what does the market expect from us, how innovation will help us to emerge stronger.

4655 10 October 2022 at 12:45 pm Gokhan Kizilirmak Monitoring Railway Deformation Using Radar Remote Sensing Satellites Maintenance tools, drones, etc. (Maintenance tools, drones, etc. ) Railway Infrastructure Monitoring, Remote Sensing

In recent years, successful applications of the Radar Remote Sensing Satellites technique have been reported for the monitoring of subsidence and deformation in transport infrastructures like railway. Compared to other non-destructive surveying methodologies, this technique can perform network-level analyses more rapidly and it can provide time-series of ground displacements by multi-temporal date acquisition.
Earth surface and infrastructures are affected by catastrophic natural disasters (such as earthquakes, floods, etc.) or by slow threats related to physical deterioration (material decay, erosion, etc.). Traditional monitoring of infrastructure displacement is usually limited to very few measurement points. With the new remote sensing technologies, from satellites, such as the Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique, we can now monitor infrastructures covering wide areas, continuously over time, in a cost-effective way.
The technique is an efficient and powerful tool for infrastructures monitoring and also is sensitive to small deformations, in the order of millimetres. This high displacement sensitivity is a key characteristic to achieve an early detection of deformation phenomena.


Luís Almeida
Alberto Aroso
Katia Rocha

Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) Alignments, Design parameters

Over decades, the option for a high-speed railway corridor through north of the Douro River was never considered under the excuse that it would be technically impossible. As a result of that “challenge”, this study presents the design fundamentals and alignments criteria used for the Northern Portuguese International Corridor – the Trás-os-Montes high-speed railway (LAVTM).
In the LAVTM railway corridor it is assumed that speed and high-speed trains operate sharing tracks, where speeds will be equal or less to 250km/h. It is known that horizontal curves are mainly related to train speed restrictions and vertical alignments can have a significant impact on operation and construction costs. Therefore, make compatible, balance and optimise these two parameters was one of the main issues during the LAVTM design corridor. The different types of trains, design speeds and the unique characteristics of the Portuguese “Tras-os-Montes” region, as well as the lack of standardization and consistency in international regulations regarding some of the design parameters – such as the maximum grade on ramps and their extension -, presenting in many cases only guidelines, leaded the need to create and define a rationale in the geometric parameters used.
Based on the assumptions and specificities design requirements of LAVTM railway corridor – mainly the design criteria and geometric parameters adopted -, the work undertaken its intended to be a credible contribution to promoting guidance and consistency throughout project design in order to fulfill some of the main objectives of this type of projects: ensure safety, reliable and operating railway corridors.

4662 11 October 2022 at 8:51 am Flavio Maschietti FRMCS 5G Radio Network Design for High-Speed Rail Baltica Line

Salvatore Rago
Alessio Barbaresi
Simone Mammucari
Girolamo Clemenza

Telecommunications (Telecommunications ) FRCMS, Future Railway Radiocommunications

The Future Railway Mobile Communication System (FRMCS) will replace GSM-R as the global standard for railway radio communications.
Powered by the 3GPP evolution towards 5G, the FRMCS will allow rail networks to enhance safety, optimize costs and support innovative passenger services.
Rail Baltica is the first project to foresee an FRMCS-based 5G radio coverage along an 870 km long High-Speed railway line.
In this paper, we discuss the design strategies applied within the Rail Baltica project for developing an ultra-reliable FRMCS radio network in accordance with the existing functional specifications. The effectiveness of our proposed radio design and planning is then verified in realistic simulation environments under normal and degraded railway scenarios.

4665 11 October 2022 at 9:22 am Eduardo de la Guerra Uses of lightweight materials on primary structures of high-speed trains Operational performance (Operational performance ) Lighweight Materials, Independent rotating wheel bogie

The railway industry are looking to increase the capacity of the railway system, bringing flexibility in order to align capacity and demand, to increase availability, reliability and energy efficiency, reducing life cycle costs (LCC) and an improvement of the passenger comfort and the attractiveness of the rail transport.
One of the lines of action to solve the above challenges is the introduction of new lighter primary structures in the rolling stock, i.e. structure of the coaches and running gear frames;
The weight saving potential (ca. 30% in carbodies and 50% in running gears) would result in reduced power consumption, lower inertia, less track damage and the ability to increase payloads.
This weight saving is achieved by the use of new hybrid concepts and designs, mixing materials and technologies in the new structures, i.e. introducing composites, high-strength steel alloys, avoiding as much as possible the welding, using new manufacturing methods, etc. This is possible without an increase of the train cost through innovation, analysing and properly fixing technical and economic targets taking into account the whole life cycle.
In this framework, Talgo is working in two major projects to reduce dramatically the weight structures. Both inside the initiative Shift2Rail Program of EU.
The first one is a hybrid high-speed carbody based on a CFRP concept and aluminium. The design is based on Talgo 350 intermediate coach and we have saved ca. 900 kg per coach. The second one is high-speed running gear frame of an independent rotating wheel bogie of Talgo AVRIL mixing CFRP monocoque and high-strength alloys achieving 400 kg less per axle.
With these demonstrators on track, Talgo will gain the experience and knowledge to add the lightweight materials components in the portfolio of solutions for high-speed trains reinforcing our key success factors: innovation, sustainability, safety, quality and competitiveness.

4666 11 October 2022 at 9:23 am Annalisa Pranno Mobile mapping systems and Algorithms Assessment for Bologne-Florence High Speed Tunnels

Eugenio FEDELI

Earthworks, tunnels, bridges (Earthworks, tunnels, bridges ) mobile mapping system, laserscanner

Over the last few years, mobile mapping systems for monitoring civil railway works have found widespread use because they offer several advantages to Infrastructure Managers. Since 2013, RFI, the Italian Infrastructure Manager, has started a project for surveying the railway tunnels with mobile mapping systems. RFI manages about 1.500 km of tunnel and about 1.070 tunnels (longer than 100 meters), for a total length of 980 km, have been surveyed up to now. The mobile mapping system is based on the integration of different sensors in a railway vehicle. The system collects a large set of data about the geometry and the defects of tunnel lining. The high accuracy and resolution of the Laser Scanner technology is the main strength of the system, in fact, it is possible to obtain a point cloud data with millimetric resolution. The data acquired are analyzed by a post-processing software able to detect and classify the lining defects into 7 specific categories: longitudinal cracks, transversal cracks, diagonal cracks, damp patches, lining loss, mortar loss among bricks (only for masonry tunnels), and deformations/detachments. By means of a visualization software, it is possible to explore the 3D reconstruction of the tunnel completed with the information of the defects detected along the tunnel lining. A specific algorithm, starting from the processed data, provides, for each tunnel, damage indicators giving a synthetic but meaningful information about the intensity and the extension of defects along the tunnel. In the article is described the use of mobile mapping for the Bologne – Florence High Speed Tunnels characterized by a very huge transversal section.

4667 11 October 2022 at 9:26 am Philippe LUCCHESE TGV M, the high speed of tomorrow Accessibility, design and comfort (Accessibility, design and comfort ) Innovation, efficiency

The TGV M is the SNCF’s new TGV, built in partnership with Alstom. More than 1,000 engineers and technicians from Alstom and SNCF worked together to develop this new TGV. 1100 new ideas were studied and 400 were selected as innovations.
The TGV M is a train that is more economical, more capable, more connected, more accessible and more sustainable. And for the first time, it is a modular train, which is why it is called the TGV M.
In terms of maintenance, the stakes are high. A 30% reduction in maintenance costs is targeted. This is made possible by the deployment of predictive maintenance.
In order to welcome this new train, a complete programme of preparation for the start of operations is being carried out in all sectors of the SNCF. From commercial policy to the service project, and including the adaptation of stations. And, of course, by supporting SNCF staff so that they can make the new train their own.

4670 11 October 2022 at 10:18 am GUIDO GUIDI BUFFARINI New solutions for current unbalance reduction in electrical substations

Giovanni Trezza, Nicola Carones, Marco Scatena

Energy storage, supply and power stations (Energy storage, supply and power stations ) AC railway system 2×25 kV – 50 Hz, Static converter

The paper reports a methodology to analyze and reduce the voltage unbalance induced by a railway line electrified at 2×25 kV 50 Hz on the main high voltage network. This problem is particularly important, for High-Speed railway lines with significant electric loads, in the case of poorly interconnected high voltage networks or connections to network nodes with not too high short-circuit power values. Starting from the knowledge of maximum power consumption by trains, carrying out a train performance, a model of a real railway line electrified at 2×25 k-50 Hz has been carried out in order to calculate the voltage and current unbalance. Taken into account CEI EN 50160 and IEEE Std. 1159-1995, new technical solutions have been proposed in order to mitigate the voltage unbalance under threshold limit imposed by standard, even using static converters.

4671 11 October 2022 at 10:22 am Laura Petersen Security in High Speed Rail – a proposed session Protection against emerging threats (including cyber security) (Protection against emerging threats (including cyber security) ) Security

The UIC Security Division proposes to organise a panel on security issues impacting High Speed Rail. We will invite four speakers and also have one presentation from the security division team. Ideally, we will invite the Chair of our platform, the Railway Protection Force of Indian Railways. We would like to ask Mr. Chandar to speak on the security issues involved the construction and planning of their high speed lines. We would also like to invite our Asian region representative, Japan East Railways, to talk about security issues they face on their high speed lines. Furthermore, our Vice Chair SNCF and the conference hosts ONCF could talk about these issues. The UIC Security Division will run a Network of Quick Responders survey on the issue of security for HS and can present the results during the session.

4676 11 October 2022 at 2:32 pm Luigi Contestabile StationLAND – a location intelligence platform for station placement

Sara Venturoni

Planning a High-Speed Station (Planning a High-Speed Station ) Geospatial Approach, Location Intelligence

The decision about where to place a new station is a complex process. It involves a multidisciplinary approach and needs advanced use of geo-located informations:
1) What is the catchment area of a new High Speed station? How many people work and live within this area?
2) How many significant points of interest are involved (Hospital, Universities, Schools, Commercial Centres, Hotels, Museums etc)? And what is the density of trasport infrastructures (metro, tram, bus, bike lanes ecc.) intermodality could rely on?
To answer these and many other questions, RFI has developed a location intelligence platform named “StationLAND”, that allows – as its name suggests – to analyse all the possible relations between a new station and the surrounding urban environment, and to make “data-driven” decisions for the best possible location of the stations to be placed in the Italian territory.

4678 11 October 2022 at 2:55 pm Alberto Aroso Towards to an efficient Iberian high-speed railway network – The portuguese International North Corridor case

Cláudio Pereira
Katia Rocha
Luís Almeida

Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) High-speed line, strategic planning

The need to build a high-performance railway corridor in the north of Portugal raises several questions, namely regarding its location north or south of the Douro Valley. However, the existence of a technical solution through the south – the Aveiro-Viseu-Salamanca axis – conditioned for many years the study of other alternatives to this layout solution.

Considering the socio-economic and territorial differences, the complexity of the railway corridor crossing the Porto metropolitan area – which presents important congestion difficulties, the existence of the Leixões seaport as well as the location of the international airport Francisco Sá Carneiro on the north side of the Douro Valley, it is not obvious that the best solution for the north international railway corridor is thought the south of the Douro Valley. On the contrary, a corridor located in the center of the area of most significant economic activity of the Atlantic coast of central and northern Portugal connecting to the Spanish high-speed network and crossing the Portuguese region of Trás-os-Montes, i.e. the Oporto-Vila Real-Bragança-Zamora axis, presents itself linking more territory – meaning socio-economic more efficient – and therefore as a natural option that can and should be studied.

This study aims to compare the regions crossed by both corridors and define the assumptions of a high-performance railway corridor located north of the Douro River including the service concept. It is also intended as a contribution to the decision-making regarding the final positioning of the Northern International Corridor, which should be chosen in the location that will create the most significant value for the national economy and which, through inter-regional and international rail passenger and freight flows, will provide the greatest potential for socio-economic development and territorial cohesion.

4681 11 October 2022 at 4:55 pm Vito D’Addario Innovative tools for Environmental Control of Construction Sites: the development of AI in drone flight

Daniele Nanni, Gennaro Petito, Lorenzo Santini.

() Environmental Control,, AI (Artificial intelligence)

The complexity of the current infrastructural challenges in the field of railway mobility and specifically in the implementation of High-Speed railway lines, requires the use of increasingly effective tools to prevent critical environmental issues during the design and execution of works.
The use of Drones flanked by AI (“Artificial Intelligence”) and developed through machine learning, allows to optimize the resources involved in the Environmental Control activity of Construction Sites, as well as the fast recognition of environmental liabilities, making possible to retrieve and share the information acquired in extremely short times.

4683 11 October 2022 at 9:31 pm Raffaele Malangone An innovative and cheap GSM-R signal real time monitoring way by commercial trains radio parameters analysis collected on TLC network Maintenance (signalling)(Maintenance (signalling)) ERTMS, Analysis

The MISTRAL ( Monitoring Integrated of Signaling and Telecommunications for RFI through Automatic Log-analysis) for the ERTMS, is diagnostic a platform sniffing and analyzing data from the ground-based ERTMS network devices, in continuous growth in terms of monitored lines and functions implemented, which facilitate operators work.
The data acquired by MISTRAL allow, through algorithms and grafic web tools, to provide information in real time even via email, simplifying human activity and allowing network diagnostics in real time. The tool daily use in ERTMS problem analyses has provided continuous ideas to develope new improvement solutions.
In this article are described the new functions developed on the Mistral platform from the emerging needs of the ERTMS and TLC groups of the RFI Technical Department, which by using the real time intercepted data on the TLC network relating to circulating trains allow several automatic analysis and in particular:
1) the GSMR continuos monitoring according to the EIRENE SRS 16.0.0 specification
2) the simulated effect of switching off one or more BTS.
These and other adopted solutions have the dual purpose of a continuos monitoring the GSM-R network and permit to not use a dedicated diagnostic train savings in resources and costs.

4685 11 October 2022 at 10:04 pm Gianluca Petrangeli Papini Quality, Environmental and Health and Safety Management Systems in High-Speed railway lines construction works: an opportunity to ensure transparent, efficient, and effective Contract management

O. Stiro; C. Cazzola; E. Pressi; G. Gatti; F. Di Rosario

Project management (Project management ) Quality, Environmental, Health and Safety Management Systems, Digital data network and information security, Contractual provisions and management requirements, Stakeholders

Construction works in the High-Speed railway lines sector require an efficient and effective management in terms of time, costs, and environmental sustainability’s target due to complexity of works and heterogeneity of surrounding contexts.
The implementation of QEHS Management Systems represents an opportunity for Clients and Contractors to manage the compliance with contractual provisions, design requirements and legal regulations.
FSI defines dedicated contractual provisions in terms of QEHS Management and requires the Contractors to ensure works coordination and surveillance including subcontractors and suppliers’ activities.
Such provisions include the use a dedicated and secured digital system to manage design and work nonconformities, in order to support design and works progress monitoring.
Data network system implementation concerning digital traceability of construction materials as well as Environmental and Health and Safety monitoring, is an opportunity to provide transparent information to Stakeholders in real time.
Case studies and possible future developments.

4686 12 October 2022 at 6:19 am AKİF ÖZEN MAINTENANCE METHODS OF ELECTROMECHANİC SYSTEMS IN RAİLWAYS Maintenance (station operations)(Maintenance (station operations)) method

Topic of this article is various methods of maintenance of electromechanic systems in railways. This article aims to indicate the advantages-disadvantages of these methods and to clarify how a method can be chosen in different products and work area conditions. Statistical datas of productivity rates of the maintenance methods are used for this purpose. The results consist pairwise comparison of each method couple by using these statistical datas. Eventually, studies demonstrates that choosing the right maintenance strategy can be possible if the equipments are understood accurately and the appropriate method combination that works best for the relevant equipments must be chosen.

4687 12 October 2022 at 6:31 am AKİF ÖZEN MAINTENANCE METHODS OF ELECTROMECHANIC SYSTEMS IN RAILWAYS Maintenance (station operations)(Maintenance (station operations)) MAINTENANCE, METHOD

Topic of this article is various methods of maintenance of electromechanic systems in railways. This article aims to indicate the advantages-disadvantages of these methods and to clarify how a method can be chosen in different products and work area conditions. Statistical datas of productivity rates of the maintenance methods are used for this purpose. The results consist pairwise comparison of each method couple by using these statistical datas. Eventually, studies demonstrates that choosing the right maintenance strategy can be possible if the equipments are understood accurately and the appropriate method combination that works best for the relevant equipments must be chosen.


Fabio Senesi
Gianvito Gallo
Claudia Bafunno
Ylenia Ferlazzo
Giovanni Vita
Andrea Tredicine


The abstract aims to highlight the future complete integration in terms of ERTMS between the high-speed network and the conventional national network. In fact, in accordance with the migration plan which provides for the commissioning of the pure ERTMS system at the same time as the decommissioning of the current class B system, it will be possible to have greater integration in ERTMS functionalilty with the high-speed / high-capacity network, allowing the use of the ETCS system since its beginning mission within an urban node( eg. Milano Centrale, Roma Termini).
Moreover the implementation of ERTMS System is useful in situations in which there are high-speed/high capacity and conventional lines side by side.
Depending on the commercial use and the electric traction present or to be installed on these lines, there may be two cases that define the optimal choice of the ERTMS System to be implemented which optimize both its management and from the point of view of circulation and maintenance. Furthermore, these choices can also affect further technological components present or to be installed on the line (eg 3kV / 25 kV).
In the first case it may be required that the trains run indifferently on both lines. In the second, there is a clear distinction between the traffic circulating on the high-speed and that on the conventional lines.
This optimization and integration has numerous advantages in terms of operational management, maintenance and Temporary Speed Restriction management. Furthermore, the Handover RBC ERTMS specifications are already specified and shared between the industrial suppliers. The achievement of this specific level is a guarantee for the success of the correct integration between the two types of networks.
Concluding Italian Railways are today among the safest in Europe and are completing a step ahead in the technological innovation that will lead RFI further in terms of preformance, quality and efficiency. The process is succeeding!

4695 12 October 2022 at 9:55 am Ciro Morvillo Next Generation High Speed/High Capacity Railway Lines in Italy: solutions for Interoperability

Massimo Berdusco, Luigi Corvini, Paolo Quattrone, Andrea Ugurlu, Gian Marco Vinattieri

At network scale (At network scale ) Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI), Tunnel

In the next few years several branch of the TEN Network are going to be completed and put in operation service in Italy, on the wave of Next Generation EU Program and Milano-Cortina 2026 Olympic Winter Games. The purpose of this presentation is to give an overview of compliance with TSI requirements, analyzing the design and technological solutions that will be implemented by Italferr on the over 570 km of the new High-Speed/High-Capacity network, also focusing on Safety in Railway Tunnels, since there will be over 270 km of new tunnels, with several very long tunnels (over 20 km each).

4696 12 October 2022 at 10:00 am FREYDIER Emilia Digital Twins: the first industrialized technological tool for maintainer, manager & asset manager

Flavien VIGUIER – Responsable de la Division Matrice – Expert scientifique et technique du réseau SNCF

Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Digital Twin , Data connexion

The first service of SNCF Réseau’s Digital Twin has been industrialized. Co-constructed with maintainers, engineering and the digital department, this technological tool aims to optimize the organization of maintenance operations and improve the operational performance of maintenance in terms of both productivity and technical safety. It is a data aggregator, called AVATAR: assistant for visualizing field anomalies and network assets.

4698 12 October 2022 at 11:18 am Ibrahim Temel RESEARCH ON THE METHOD OF NDT FOR STEEL RAIL BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNETIC PERTURBATION () non-destructive testing, permanent magnetic perturbation

This paper discusses the importance of the development of non-destructive testing methods to detect discontinuities and defects in high-speed railway tracks. In the modernization of the railway construction, railway safety is the first problem to be solved. Therefore, rail defects have become more vital in point of the safety of railway operation. Because the manual defect detection of the railways has a lot of risk for the workers, causes of low efficiency, and there may be false detection possibilities, automatic detection systems are urgently needed to improved and implement, to replace the previous manual detection. Rail defects, which cannot be detected or controlled on the track, progress in the horizontal, vertical and longitudinal directions under traffic loads in the course of time. The propagation of flaws in rails has the risk of rail breakage and train accidents such as derailments. For this reason, railway tracks in-service has to be inspected systematically for internal and surface defects in order to provide a safe and comfortable railway operation. The most effective methods to detect defects in rails are non-destructive testing methods. The rapid development of the Turkish Railways Construction makes vital importance to the continuous testing and monitoring of the railway network.

Although different NDT methods for railways defect detection like ultrasonic and eddy-current testing have been used, still they have some drawbacks. This reason leads researchers to explore new methods. In this paper author establishes a new NDT method for detecting certain defects in railway tracks, which is Permanent Magnetic Perturbation Testing Method.

The detection method established the principle of permanent magnetic disturbance detection is proposed. The principle of this method is the use of magnetic disturbance phenomenon, based on availability of magnetic disturbance detection method for permanent magnet. If the lines of magnetic force encounter a local defor

4700 12 October 2022 at 12:23 pm Pierluigi Lozi Risk profiling and incident prevention: AI applications to occupational safety in railway construction

Dr. Michele Villa (Adam AI Solutions)

In Safety security (In Safety security ) Internet of Things (IoT), risk profiling

The railway construction is known globally as one of the most dangerous industries due to the unique nature of its hazards (electrocution, moving trains, etc.) and the presence of several stakeholders.
In the process of optimizing safety management system and developing an efficient risk-assessment tool for railway construction sites, the use of machine learning algorithms that consider past events, technical documentation and current attributes (IoT wearable devices) is an indispensable item to prevent incidents when the risk level is deemed too high.
Case study: Worksite – Design and Construction of the New ETR 1000 (train used for High-Speed railway lines) Maintenance Shed of Milano Martesana.

4704 12 October 2022 at 1:47 pm Sabina Puławska-Obiedowska Method for the modal split modelling in HSR corridors

Aleksandra Ciastoń-Ciulkin
Andrzej Szarata
Agata Pomykała

Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) modal split model, generalized cost of travel

The work presents the method of modelling and forecasting the modal split in the newly designed High Speed Rail corridors. The presented method uses the concept of the generalized cost of travel, taking into account not only the travel time (apart from the travel time itself, the time to and from the stop/ airport), but also travel costs. In order to be able to use the generalized cost of travel functions in modal split modeling, all possible transport modes should be included in the analysis: passenger car, bus, conventional rail and plane. The proposed approach takes into account the time inconvenience of particular stages of the journey by subjective estimation of the real travel time by the user. The model was developed based on the results of an extensive survey on travel preferences (over 9,000 respondents) conducted in Poland in 2018.
The process of calibration of the modal split model parameters consisted in their selection so that in the analyzed transport corridor the currently existing proportion between modes was maintained. In the case of high-speed railways, it was assumed that the HSR share is calculated taken into account the demand elasticity rate estimated on the basis of experiences from Western European countries. For the modelling purposes, in HSR in addition to the flow taken over from other transport modes, induced trips were determined and added. The induced trips generation was assumed in connection with the implementation of the investment, assuming that additional demand will be stimulated by changes in the mobility of residents and the assumed demand elasticity rate resulting from the new connection. The created model can be used to forecast of modal split for newly designed or changed HSR connections both in Poland and abroad.

4706 12 October 2022 at 2:00 pm Jeanne-Marie DALBAVIE Agile Model-based Systems Engineering of Passenger Train Operational Design

Nan Wang
David Guillaud

Operational performance (Operational performance ) Operability and Rolling Stock design, Model-based systems engineering

The Railway industry is facing a productivity issue as is evidently seen in the press with regular delays in rolling stock projects being announced. Plus there is a growing need for innovation in remote services and management that have become the new normal during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this research is to develop an adaptable model which expresses the operational behaviour of a train system in different railway environments, this model will be quickly and accurately configured to a specific environment to define the needs for a specific passenger service mission. Preventing late changes (cost and time-saving) by generating the right system requirements at the very early design phase is a key benefit from the research.

(Hoenhe, 2020) describes the problematics of Systems Engineering at Railway operability level using the example of California High-Speed Rail. It concludes by stating the need of a System Integration Framework based on agility. The MBSE-like approach developed answers this challenge and goes beyond by integrating stakeholder variability for design speed and re-use. More precisely, the challenges tackled are:
• Handling different variations into the model to minimise gaps and reduce repetition.
• Reliability and availability to be maximised during the model design phase especially the emergency operation which means less out-of-service time to increase stakeholders’ confidence and demand.
• Applying MBSE to needs definition phase to have one point of dialogue between different railway stakeholders (mainly operators, constructors, and authorities) today all using their own languages and text supports.
• Ability to re-use the context and knowledge between different railway applications such as different railways and different operating concepts.

4709 12 October 2022 at 2:49 pm Stefano Neri High speed fault tolerant Ethernet train networks and passenger information systems services with on board Internet access Telecommunications (Telecommunications ) internet on board, Fault tolerant Ethernet train networks

In the last years, internet access became a basic necessity in every single moment of our life, particularly when we are somehow forced to be for some time in the same place, e.g. when travelling. We started looking for a reliable and high-quality Internet connection everywhere, since this is needed for either working or relaxing. This need is clear for our train operator company, which has been working hard for more than a decade now to solve the technical issues involved with the provision of Internet access onboard trains running up to 300 km/h.
In 2011 we deployed the first fault tolerant fully redundant Fast Ethernet train networks on our high-speed train fleets to offer passengers the latest multimedia and passenger information systems services available on the market. In 2016 we deployed Gigabit Ethernet train networks and in 2018 the 10 GbE technology was also deployed on train backbones.
It is worth saying that the availability of on-board Internet access does not only now allow our train company to provide a top-level service to our customers, but it also enabled a wide range of possibilities with respect to train maintenance and security.
We made consistent research efforts to develop Ethernet based networks suited for the on-board train harsh environment. We also identified the main technical challenges to deal with the following sophisticated mobile local area network:
-fault tolerant LAN, topology constraints due to train architecture
-data cabling requirements due to very strict fire-flames rules (EN45545)
-data connector housing requirements for on-board in-vehicle and between-vehicles links
-data connector contact requirements for on-board railway operations (vibrations, temperature…)
-strict latency and jitter application level response
After some prototype testing, we were able to exactly identify the train network technical requirements: a fully switched Ethernet network with VLAN and QoS features.
We tell you what we have done…

4710 12 October 2022 at 2:58 pm ABDULLAH MURAT ESER The benefits of high-speed rail in the context of economic externalities: Türkiye Case

Zeynep ATAK

Value of time saved (Value of time saved ) Speed, Economic externalities

One of the most important externalities associated with high – speed rail economic analysis is the value of time saved. The main economic benefits of high – speed rail may stem from the speed advantage, however in this study, it is intended to emphasize the benefits of high – speed trains in the aspect of externalities (such as value of human life, value of CO2 ton, etc.). Within the scope of this intention, Türkiye’s high – speed rail infrastructure is considered in terms of average train speeds and length of rail lines in operation. Moreover, the number of passengers using high – speed trains between 2017 – 2021 and the high – speed train passenger forecasts between 2022 – 2031 are taken into account as well. Türkiye has 1.213 km of high – speed rail lines and 1.210 km of rail lines are under construction for three different routes. By 2025 Türkiye’s expected high – speed rail infrastructure is totally 2.423 km. The expected opening dates of new high – speed rail lines take an important place in economic analysis. According to opening dates of each route, average train speeds and total lengths of rail line in operation are changed. And, according to these changes, unit economic benefits arising from externalities change over the years. In this work, the effect of speed on economic benefits are presented according to length of lines in operation and years. In the conclusion part, a comparison is carried out between value of time saved and other externalities in terms of economic benefits. Moreover, the importance of the economic benefits stemming from the speed advantage in the total economic benefits is illustrated.

General topic: Economy and Finances
Main sub – topic: Economic externalities
Detailed sub – topic: Value of time saved

4712 12 October 2022 at 3:18 pm Gilles AUGOT NEW AUTOMATIC TRACK WARNING SYSTEM Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Automatic Warning System, ERTMS controlled

The new automatic track warning system (ATWS) co-developed by SYSTRA and Zöllner provides a response to the increasing safety requirements for work on railway lines.
Existing solution with look-outs have their limitations. They require significant human resources, sometimes even greater than those necessary for the work, and are difficult to mobilise at any time of the day. They are also costly for the operator, as maintenance and regeneration work is often carried out at night due to the density and pace of daytime traffic.

Operational efficiency and simplicity of deployment
The new automatic audio and audible and visual warning system co-developed by SYSTRA and Zöllner is a simpler and a more efficient solution than existing systems.
The system does neither require any modification to existing stations and signalling systems, nor does it require cabling or the installation of detection equipment in the field prior to operations. It can be deployed on any line equipped with ERTMS Level 2 worldwide. Several warning modes are possible depending on the type of intervention and the requirements of the maintenance sites: trafficked track, contiguous track. This system requires only one operator.

Benefits for rail infrastructure managers
The new system also offers significant benefits to railway infrastructure managers:
– Improvement of the overall safety and working conditions of the agents Reduction of the costs of future regeneration operations
– Reduction of the costs of future regeneration operations
– Facilitation of maintenance work near (vegetation) and track inspection
– Maintenance operations carried out without interrupting rail traffic and therefore less costly

4715 12 October 2022 at 9:20 pm Valéry BOUCLET Anticipate catenary settings and prevent catenary incidents with deep learning RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) (RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) ) catenary, deep learning

Catenary installations may be subject to various hazards that could jeopardize their integrity as well as those of the pantographs fitted to the trains. In order to cover this lack, SNCF Réseau needs to identify other solutions to and benefit from more regular monitoring.
SNCF Réseau has the IRIS320 high-speed inspection train for this purpose, which runs on all highspeed lines at a rate of once every two weeks. The concept of deep learning is to assess the possible risks of damage to the catenary. The IRIS320 train is the high-speed inspection train of SNCF Réseau, circulating on all high-speed lines every two weeks. The project concerns the use of videos of the pantograph-catenary interaction. The objective of the project is to determine or even anticipate a risk of breaking up the catenary wire by analyzing the video recorded by Iris 320 monitoring cameras. The principle consists in identifying the contact point located between the pantograph and the contact wire.
The videos are already regularly made available to High speed lines within 15 days with dedicated viewing software. On several occasions, these videos have enabled our operators to confirm the causes of catenary disturbances linked to bad weather or to identify poor catenary adjustment. The use of the video monitoring is now included in an SNCF maintenance repository.
With deep learning, SNCF Réseau hopes to acquire a system capable of detecting weak signals indicating a drift in catenary settings. In the end, this project would make it possible to anticipate the adjustment work and prevent the risk of catenary forking.

4716 12 October 2022 at 9:26 pm Valéry BOUCLET Use arc measurements to optimize catenary maintenance RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) (RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) ) Catenary, Electric arcs

SNCF Réseau is exploring a project to detect electric arcs using a system installed on the IRIS320 train. The IRIS320 train is the high-speed inspection train of SNCF Réseau, circulating on all high-speed lines every two weeks). The purpose of the detection of electric arcs is to detect areas of poor adjustment, or settings on track or catenary. This type of monitoring was tested a few years ago on the French North High Speed line and on conventional 1500V DC lines but has never been industrialized. An initial extraction of data from electric arc detectors was carried out and localized. Thus, significant groups of electric arcs have been identified around specific infrastructure such as engineering structures. Since then, work has been underway to ensure the long-term installation of the arc detectors on the high-speed train.
SNCF Réseau plans to continue working on the classification of electric arcs for the rest of the project. Indeed, it is still necessary to optimize the classification of the occurrences of the electric arcs detected and to compare these results with the readings and observations of the teams in charge of the maintenance of the electrical installations. The teams in charge of catenary maintenance and solicited on this specific subject have shown great interest in using this data to
improve their maintenance.

4719 13 October 2022 at 5:45 am Agata POMYKALA Polish experience in reducing CO2 emissions.

Adam Szelag, M.SC., PH.D. AND D.SC

Emissions to air, land and water (Emissions to air, land and water ) CO2 emission, energy consumption

As part of the preparation of the program for the construction and commissioning of high-speed railways in Poland, a decision was also made to purchase high-speed trains. In December 2014 ED250 started running on the Polish railway network, on upgrated do 200 km/h lines.
Several years of their operation allow to draw conclusions regarding the rightness of decisions regarding the purchase of these trains and a significant improvement in the quality of travel on the indicated, popular routes. They also make it possible to reflect on the wider aspect of using high-speed trains, i.e. the impact on reducing the negative influence of transport on the environment. This article addresses the issue of reduced carbon dioxide emissions by recalling the simulation carried out to compare the energy consumption between ED250 trains and locomotive plus carriages that, before the purchase of ED250 vehicles, served the Warsaw – Katowice and Warsaw – Gdańsk routes. The results of this simulation clearly indicate the advantages of HS trains in the ecological context.
The paper presents:
– technical information on high-speed trains operated in Poland,
– changes to the offer within 6 years of the ED250 trains in years 2015-2020,
– results of the simulation on energy consumption carried out for the period 2015-2020,
– the volume of reduced CO2 emissions in the period 2015-2020,
– savings in the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS).

The conducted analyzes allowed to draw conclusions concerning the reduced emissivity of high-speed trains and the beneficial influence of the change of traction on the impact of rail transport on the environment. They also allow to see the prospect of improving the quality of the environment and reducing CO2 pollution in connection with the plans to build a full high-speed rail system where the length of high-speed lines would be over 700 km and the emu sets operating on them would have no worse parameters than ED250.

4722 13 October 2022 at 7:44 am Alain THIEBAUT Ballasted track renewal for high-speed mobility : How recent technical innovations will allow us to build a new model of track renewal for tomorrow

M. AVRIL Bertrand (Co-author)

Renewals (track)(Renewals (track)) SNCF RESAU DGII VA, SNCF RESEAU DGII VA

The roadmap for the renewal of high-speed lines charts the first massive track and ballast renewal operations on the Paris-Lyon High-Speed Line by 2028-2034. SNCF Réseau is initiating a strategic reflection to tackle the major challenges posed by the highest-usage axis in Europe. Framed by the aging laws, the studies in progress will determine the operational maintenance of the main components (rail, ballast and concrete sleepers), in order to plan -in space and time- the regeneration of nearly 540 km of HS Lines.

Feedback obtained during the deployment of innovative materials confirms our choice of designing a “new model of ballast track” with better sustainability and better compatibility with environmental issues ; Under Sleeper Pad and other parts of our Concept Track model reduce maintenance efforts and extend ballast life.

As a matter of fact, innovations in the renewal process provide a global industrial and environmental solution through the reduction of capacity impact (ballast and sleepers renewal at 120 km/h then 160 km/h) to lower impact on commercial traffic and limit resource usage. In particular, new methodologies for recycling used ballast allow to greatly cut down on the use of new ballast, thus reducing the environmental footprint and associated costs.

4723 13 October 2022 at 7:46 am Isabella Selmi A BIM and LCA Tool for Sustainable design of railway infrastructures

Daniela Aprea
Domenica Iuliano

Accessible and sustainable low-carbon infrastructure by design (Accessible and sustainable low-carbon infrastructure by design ) LCA, Sustainability

To date, sustainability is the new frontier of infrastructure development and is one of the fundamental requirements of a project; it must be pursued by predicting and managing the impact that the project, as a whole, brings on the economic, social and environmental level from the construction phase to its decommissioning. Life Cycle Assessment evaluates the infrastructure’s set of interactions with the environment, considering its entire life cycle. As railway infrastructures represent a complex and articulated system per se, given the complexity and heterogeneity of the elements and materials that characterize them, the BIM Methodology has the potential to support data management and decision making by pursuing a life-cycle approach throughout the infrastructure life. To this end, Italferr is currently working on a tool that allows designers to perform LCA assessments for High-Speed railway lines projects, taking advantage of the increased flexibility of the early design stages, through BIM processes, in order to adopt design solution that are also sustainable-effective. LCA analyses rely on the availability of consistent, categorized and standardized data from the early stages of the design; once associated LCA relevant infrastructure information to the BIM Models components, the data platform currently in development, will enable the connection of these data to LCI data. From the association of these two databases, given a design solution, the tool will be able to provide the hypothetical environmental impact from the very planning and design phases up to the construction phase.

4724 13 October 2022 at 7:46 am Luca Dominici A BIM and AI based framework for state-of-progress monitoring

Daniela Aprea
Gabriele Barone
Martina Bazzoni

Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) State-of-progress, Site monitoring

State-of-progress monitoring and quality control of construction works for High-Speed railway lines is nowadays done manually, by site inspections. Through the application of new technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence and 3D surveys made by laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques (also using drones), the entire process can be severely improved.
Italferr is currently working on identification of tools and processes allowing to automatically update BIM models to site progresses, through information contained in point captured directly on site. This goal can be reached using AI-powered platforms and algorithms, capable to compare point clouds to 3D models, and generating up to date 4D models with construction site progress, in terms of time.
Not only the state-of-progress of works can be measured, but also quality controls about object positioning and dimensioning could be performed, comparing 3D surveys and BIM models. Specific AI algorithms are capable to understand what has been built on site, also compared to previous measurements.
Data acquired can be stored on cloud platforms, for making the information collected accessible everywhere, both with point cloud/3D or 4D model visualization and through the use of dashboards for collecting main info.


Ramy Shaltout (corresponding author): School of Energy, Construction and Environment, Coventry University, Much Park Street, Coventry, CV1 2LT, United Kingdom

Marwan Salah: Applied-Science & Robotics Laboratory for Applied Mechatronics (ARAtronics Lab.); Mechatronics Engineering Department, German University in Cairo, Cairo, 11835, Egypt

Amir R. Ali: Applied-Science & Robotics Laboratory for Applied Mechatronics (ARAtronics Lab.); Mechatronics Engineering Department, German University in Cairo, Cairo, 11835, Egypt

RCM & Sensing (RCM & Sensing ) Micro-Optomechatronics sensors, Railway track

Railway systems presents significant challenges. It tend to be large in scope, scale and complexity. The rail assets including both rolling stocks and infrastructures can now be reserved by the application of condition monitoring techniques that extends the overall life cycle of these type of assets. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the integration of high precession condition monitoring technologies in the observation track structure health monitoring, into an innovative web-based platform that will permit the real time monitoring of the system. The concept of the proposed research relies on the actual needs of the railway systems for increasing its reliability and availability as well as attractiveness for both passenger and freight sector. The paper presents state of the art technologies in monitoring the status and operation of the key parameters of the railway systems including the vehicle as well as the infrastructure. A novel sensing technologies is developed for condition monitoring of rails, which employs the whispering gallery modes (WGM) of a micro-ring/sphere resonator will for the customization of the used sensors with ultra-sensitivity. The system has been used for rail vibration monitoring and the obtained results are presented in this paper. Specific targets are addressed by the proposed activities, which include defined the work streams of the proposed research. On one hand, increasing the system operating efficiency by reducing the potential for sudden interruption of the provided service due to unplanned maintenance activities such as the case of track failure. On the other hand, increasing system safety and reliability by offering real time information of the track structure condition.

4730 13 October 2022 at 8:54 am Senol Erdogan Best Practice in Subsystem Selection for High Speed Rail


Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) subsystem selection, high speed rail

Government’s investment decision on high speed lines depends on some parameters that the cost of the investment and the route of the system may be expressed primarily. The most important benefit of construction of high speed line is decreasing the generated traffic congestion by other rail companies and time saving. Thus, the generalized cost and the capacity of the congestive roads can be reduced as alternatively.
High speed trains and infrastructures require different kinds of components while comparing with normal conventional lines. Train, track, signalling, route selection and maintenance of the system create additional cost that is significant effect of government decisions. In this paper, it has been discussed best subsystem selection for high speed rail in terms of stopping points and alignment, station and tunnel design, track types and maintenance factor, switches and crossing selection and finally environmental impact.
The author recommends the following technologies for very high speed railway projects:
• Condition based maintenance and inspection must be used for railway bridges, S&C and track monitoring for dependability.
• As a solution of alignment design must be deemed in height and cutting reduced in depth, thanks to the slippery gradient possible where only HS trains are used.
• An effective station design should be provided by applying passenger flow models.
• A complete tunnel design should be aimed of minimised vibration, elimination of noise, vibration and noise absorbing track design, light walkways, central derailment barriers, high level passenger comfort and less energy usage design in a cost effective way.
• The choice of track should be ballastless which must provide good vibration characteristics
• S&C problems are reduced with lengthening of turnouts and applying of rail pads to obtain different stiffness.
Local conditions may demand the use of different technologies.


Senol Erdogan
Merve Tugyanoglu

Operational performance (Operational performance ) Train performance, Operatioanl management

Researchers, engineers, and scientists are working to minimize energy consumption by using diverse materials or renewable energy sources and to reduce time consumption by inventing communication or transit methods since both issues are extremely important and unique to human existence. Applications that save time and consume less energy may be evaluated and used in many different ways. Computer-based simulations and programs can be used by researchers to help address concerns relating to system availability, safety, and applicability. Railroads and railroad applications benefit from cost efficiency and complex system analysis.
The huge effect that railway complexity has on costs and system decompositions can be addressed through experimentation. However, in some circumstances, the performance of the system may be determined through the use of simulators, which is a sign of technical advancement. Although using computer-based systems and programs results in a system that is extremely dependable and predictable, it has also led to increased complexity. Understanding and demonstrating the consequences of altering train control, restricting maximum speed, and decreasing train stops for certain trains and particular routes are the main goals of this study. The trains chosen for comparison in terms of energy usage and overall travel duration are Class14x and Class150, and the route is from Stratfort upon Avon to Birmingham Moor Street. According to the results, mass reduction and limitation in maximum train speed lead to %36 and %18 less energy consumption, respectively, compared with normal operation conditions and have a minimal increase in total journey time. However, changing driving style does not have a significant effect on energy consumption and total journey time. In addition, mass reduction and maximum speed limitation should be evaluated in terms of riding quality, seating capacity, and timetable issues.

4735 13 October 2022 at 11:28 am Calogero La Placa Digital transformation of the asset management system

Aprea Daniela
Selmi Isabella

Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) Information Management, Maintenance

The development of the Digital process aims to reproduce a digital copy of the existing infrastructure and optimize the asset management based on its real time status.
This process is implemented by structuring an intelligent platform able to manage and analyse important amounts of data coming from different sources (e.g.: on field, design, technologies (sensors), Digital Twin).
The Digital Twin is a BIM information model that receives the asset information/data evolution during each phase of its life cycle.
The BIM information model is based on a standardization of each BIM object functionally related to the scope of work (design and asset management).
Each BIM Object contains the specific information needed to characterize it (e.g. geometric information, parameters, relevant legislation reference/information, technical and performance aspects/data, maintenance data, etc.).
The effectiveness of this proposal is to identify a process by using “Information Management” in order to provide the asset real time status. This aims at optimizing the asset management and the related costs by planning specific actions and by implementing specific maintenance policies mainly based on “on condition” strategy.
This process will involve a standardization of the data management for the maintenance coming both from the new High-Speed railway lines and from the existing infrastructural works.



Maintenance (incl. tools) (Maintenance (incl. tools) ) Defect analysis, Non-destructive testing

Due to the fracture that has developed on the rail surface and the dynamic forces that occur over time, its advancement is a crucial characteristic that has to be measured. The identification of such damage depends greatly on the load present along the line, the passage of vehicles with various capacities, and the impact of environmental and dynamic conditions on the behavior of the line. In this study, a number of investigations were performed on the damaged rail found on the high-speed train line, including visual inspection, magnetic particle inspection, chemical analysis, hardness, optical microscopy, and tensile testing. Following a magnetic particle examination, continuous fractures along the rail at the intersection of the cork and body were confirmed and dimensioned. Cracks and traces created on the faulty rail surface were seen during the visual inspection. On the sample collected from the faulty rail material by chemical analysis, the average result values of the three chemical analyses done by spectrometer were discovered. According to EN 13674-1, hardness scans of the rails were conducted using the hardness control. Samples of the flawed rail underwent a tensile test. They were studied both before and after the etching process using an optical microscope at various magnifications, and a tensile test was run. According to the analysis made, complex oxide residues were detected on the rail made of non-alloy steel material. It was understood that the slag residues resulting from the manufacture of the rail folded in the material during rolling and caused crack formation under dynamic loads during operation.

4738 13 October 2022 at 11:48 am Ömür Cansu UZGİDİM Simulation-based Capacity Assessment of Trieste-Udine Railway Line with ERTMS/ETCS Implementation Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) (Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) ) capacity, simulation

With the growing importance of mobility, the increased demand for people and goods transportation has resulted in an increase in traffic density in the present railway network.
More than 20 train control systems are in use in the European Union. For the safe running, each train with at least one legacy system, normally independent and non-interoperable, which necessitates considerable integration and engineering, rising total delivery costs for cross-border traffic. ERTMS introduction is willing eventually replace incompatible systems across Europe for the benefit of railway industry and international freight and passenger transportation. Furthermore, ERTMS is undoubtedly an efficient train control system, offering significant savings in terms of maintenance costs, safety, reliability, punctuality, compatibility and capacity.
This study focuses on the 67 km long line between Udine and Bivio D’Aurisina, part of the Udine-Trieste corridor, in order to calculate and analyse the potential benefits of the implementation of ERTMS/ETCS in the future. The goal of this study is to gain a better knowledge of how upgrading railway technology works and how these technologies can maximize the utilization of existing infrastructures rather than building new assets.
The evaluation of the results was by comparing occupation times, headways and compressed timetable in:
1) Current situation: line equipped with ATC2 systems;
2) Line upgraded to ERTMS/ETCS Level 2 and optical signals replaced with marker boards.
Due to the continuous updating of the movement authority for both existing and improved block sections, Level 2 is able to increase the overall capacity. Continuous updating gives the process additional flexibility, especially when delays occur. Positive effects are arising on occupation time (12-13% reductions) and headways (31-43% reductions).

keywords: capacity; signaling; timetabling; simulation

4739 13 October 2022 at 12:49 pm Elif ATAR A Ground Improvement Application for a Railway Bridge Approach Embarkments (Turkey)

Candan Gokceoglu, Hacettepe University, Geological Engineering Department, Ankara, Turkey
Ahmet Sirin, General Directorate of Turkish Railway System, Ankara, Turkey
Elif Atar, General Directorate of Turkish Railway System, Ankara, Turkey
Asli Can, Iksa Engineering Company, Ankara, Turkey
Emre Turk, Akademi Zemin Company, Ankara, Turkey
Suat Gullu, General Directorate of Turkish Railway System, Ankara, Turkey

In infrastructure (In infrastructure ) ground improvement, inclined deep soil mixing, railway bridge approach embarkment

In this study, a ground improvement application constructed under an in-service railway bridge approach embankment in Sivas province of Turkey was investigated as a case study. The soil profile is mainly composed of orangish conglomerate, clay, silty sandy clay, and beneath claystone, and mudstone units in the study area. As a soil improvement method, the Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) technique based on the principle of simultaneous mixing of ground with the water-cement mix, was selected. The positioning of DSM columns is designed to be 45 degrees from horizontal, in order to reach the deepest point of soft clay units for better improvement against settlement. The core samples were taken from the DSM columns on which compressive strength tests were performed in the laboratory. The results were higher than the minimum designed values. Consequently, inclined DSM columns were applied successfully, and the excessive settlement problem was solved.

4741 13 October 2022 at 12:52 pm Fabian Hansmann SmartTamping – The vision of an autonomous tamping machine

Bernhard Antony, Olja Barbir

Maintenance (incl. tools) (Maintenance (incl. tools) ) Smart Tamping, Artificial Intelligence

Railway infrastructure managers are using tamping machines to maintain track geometry. Day after day, tamping machines restore track geometry, ensuring safe and sustainable train operation. Tamping machines can handle different infrastructure requirements defined by heavy haul or high-speed traffic. Increasing complexity and growing demands of the railroad system on the one hand, and the lack of skilled people on the other hand, drive the requirements for modern track maintenance machines. Automation is a key solution when facing these challenges.
With the help of multiple sensors and innovative analysing methods such as artificial intelligence and neural networks, tamping machines are able to create a digital twin of the existing track/turnout and automatically identify different obstacles in the track. Based on this digital twin, smart tamping machines automatically control the different working units. The whole process happens in real time, without the need for a separate pre-measurement run. The operator monitors different working steps and approves the final suggestions given by the machines. In addition, the machine documents each working step and the infrastructure manager benefits from a transparently documented tamping process. The assistance system ensures a consistently high tamping quality and increases usability and operating convenience of the machines.
Tamping machines must “learn” how to handle different situations. This is done by using various algorithms to analyse the immense amount of data recorded by the measuring system implemented to the machine. Tamping machines in Austria, Italy, Japan and USA are currently equipped with this new technology to collect data and prove the new machine concept. This paper shows first field test results performed using this technology that arose from a global research project.

4743 13 October 2022 at 1:31 pm Davide Porzio BIM and IoT based monitoring framework for infrastructures

Daniela Aprea
Francesco Folino
Francesco Franzè
Matteo Di Meo

Internet of Things (IoT) (Internet of Things (IoT) ) Structural Health Monitoring, Digital Twin

The realtime knowledge of the status of the infrastructure allows the optimization and effectiveness of maintenance interventions and the use of resources, according to a c-b priority scale, especially in the case of the High-Speed railway infrastructures. The monitoring of the infrastructure can be based on the existence of an information system that contains a digitalized version of the asset, in which the application of the BIM methodology is the backbone of the system. The BIM model can be connected via sensors to the physical object of the railway infrastructure represented, to monitor it in real time and verify its performance, solve any problems, prevent and reduce any risks. Recent technological evolution has made the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) increasingly widespread. The possibility of having numerous constantly updated data available allows to think about the development of applications that can analyse historical data series, cross different types of surveys to find potential correlations, in order to verify the possibility of defining predictive maintenance.
In this perspective, BIM, in its meaning of methodology, is a key data source for the development of a Digital Twin. Once the sensors have been set up in the asset of the railway infrastructure to be maintained, through the digital model is therefore possible to monitor the most significant parameters (such as vibrations and oscillations, thermal gradients between different control points, as well as distances between multiple points). The data that is acquired, transmitted and processed by the monitoring system, updates the maintenance model, which is connected through appropriate interfaces to the Maintenance Operational Plan. The objective to be achieved is what is called “Design for maintenance” i.e. designing an infrastructure so that it is easy to maintain, safe, inspectable, reliable and that can be monitored on the basis of information of a different nature aggregated in the D.Twin

4745 13 October 2022 at 2:01 pm Friedemann Brockmeyer How to build high-speed lines cheaper? – A holistic approach to improve cost effectiveness in the construction of new high-speed lines Asset management (project development)(Asset management (project development)) Cost effectiveness, Cost drivers

Railway managers worldwide are committed to the expansion of high-speed rail to improve mobility and to fight climate change. Particularly in times of a pandemic and geopolitical crisis, increasing demands on rail transport achieving financial better cost effectiveness for new build high speed lines is increasingly put to the test. The question is raised as to whether the type of designing, planning, and executing high-speed rail projects is really the appropriate means to meet the challenges of the present.
Based on many years of consultancy experience, civity has developed a holistic cost model for high-speed rail. At the core of this model are costs and cost breakdowns from real investment projects of the past.
The presentation will provide an overview of the most important cost drivers. It will help to identify best practices in cost effectiveness – the primary objective being the extraction of transferable good practices for railway infrastructure managers and railway organisations.

4748 13 October 2022 at 3:28 pm Stefan Aurich Introduction of new control technologies for advanced brake systems

Ernst Hohmann, Christopher Lozano

Operational performance (Operational performance ) Brake performance, Line Capacity

The stopping distances of rail vehicles scatter under the influence of a wide variety of parameters, such as friction coefficient, wheel diameters or condition of the vehicle. A new generation of brake systems can significantly reduce the scatter in brake performance by using modern control technologies. Considering the relevant safety requirements, these technologies are also applied during emergency brake applications.
There are significant advantages for the operator:
– A specified deceleration level can be provided reproducibly, almost independent of component tolerances and wear condition. The reduced scatter in stopping distance allows to reduce headways and to increase train sequence.
– Deceleration control allows a higher deceleration level to be used for all vehicle states, without compromising the permitted adhesion level even under unfavorable parameter combinations.
A simulation of the operation in a real, modern rail network has shown that this improvement can increase the transport capacity by up to 10%, making it a valuable addition when modernizing or expanding the infrastructure.
Today, the braking capacity of a rail vehicle is related to “on average” unfavorable conditions. The mandatory consideration of the required adhesion, on the other hand, is performed using another set of conditions according to relevant standards. In order to exploit the potential of new architectures for brake systems, a revision of the specific regulations has to be prepared and approved in the relevant bodies.

4749 13 October 2022 at 3:37 pm Simona Gurrì A new-generation of freight trains for HSL: a MBSE approach for an integrated monitoring system with AI potentialities

Gilberto Zara (Politecnico di Torino – Transport Systems Dept.)
Agostino Di Paola (Alstom Ferroviaria S.p.A)
Prof. Bruno Dalla Chiara (Politecnico di Torino – Transport Systems Dept.)

Functional & technical specifications (Functional & technical specifications ) Freight trains, Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE)

Over the past two decades, the world of passenger rail transport has undergone profound changes: we have witnessed, by means of high-speed rail in many parts of the world a paradigm shift that has brought rail back to the centre of both policy and market attention. The demand for mobility has chased a competitive supply, growing fast, and the reliability of this system has improved, aided by continuous health monitoring systems and safer signaling systems.

However, rail is now facing another revolution: policies are pushing towards a modal shift for freight as well, hoping to reduce the unit cost of transport, increase modal share tapping into a larger pool of freight (e.g., perishable goods) and make it more sustainable both on an environmental and social level. To fulfil this purpose, freight trains need to be allowed to take advantage of existing high-speed infrastructure mostly designed for promiscuous use, yet only used for passengers. A necessary pre-condition towards this goal is for the trains to be equipped with monitoring systems that enable the rolling stock to be continuously diagnosed in order to increase the safety, quality, and reliability of transport, as it happens for passenger transport.

Therefore, in this paper, after providing an overview of the systems required by the TSIs in the EU applied on passenger trains and of the new needs of the freight market, a quite innovative monitoring system for next-generation HS freight trains is designed with Model-based systems engineering approach, thus defining functional, logical, and physical architectures. To do this, the starting point was the Bogie Monitoring System (BMS) currently installed on passenger trains produced by Alstom, expanding its capabilities and adapting it to the freight domain. Afterwards, its future technological implications are evaluated, in a context where Artificial Intelligence is taking an increasingly central role in all industries, especially in predictive maintenance.

4750 13 October 2022 at 3:43 pm Domenico Caputo Pyroclastic soils treated with lime

Letizia Berardi
Stefano Ciufegni
Francesco Sacchi

Accessible and sustainable low-carbon infrastructure by design (Accessible and sustainable low-carbon infrastructure by design ) Pyroclastic soils, lime stabilization

In the last years, the word “sustainability” has been more and more often associated to construction companies designing major works that require the use of natural non-renewable resources and material with elevated performance capacity. The lime stabilization technique represents a valid solution to satisfy requirements of earth with high geotechnical characteristics, with undeniable improvement effect on the territory impact and on the infrastructure cost.
In the context of the works on the section Napoli-Cancello, first lot of the Napoli-Bari High-Speed railway line, all the pyroclastic soils coming from the artificial tunnel excavation have been used and treated with lime for the construction of the embankment.
This article will describe the preliminary studies that have been carried out during the design phase with the purpose of checking the suitability of the excavation soils to the lime treatment and of defining the homogeneous soil volumes to treat.
Studies and laboratory results concerning the experimental determination of mixtures for the stabilization of soils with lime, to be used as reference in the realization of railways embankment, will be then presented.
Finally, the results of experimental test fields to validate results of laboratory studies will be shown.
The article purpose is to demonstrate that the lime stabilization can be applied with good results, not only to composed by clay and clayey silt soils belonging to the groups A6, A7-6 (classification UNI EN 14688-1/2018), as already largely demonstrated in literature, but also to pyroclastic soils (belonging to groups A4 and alternatively to A2-4, A1-b) for the reuse in the railways embankment construction.

4751 13 October 2022 at 5:04 pm Philippe POULIGNY Rails painted white. Interest or false good idea

Tristan Pouhin
Bertrand Avril

Environmental mitigation & compensation (Environmental mitigation & compensation ) CWR, Climat change

Maintenance regulation for continuous welded rails are based on a maximum temperature of 60°C of the rail under the sun.
Thanks to the temperature sensors scattered around the French rail network today, recent summers have shown that the rails can exceed this limit by almost 5° (64.8°C) and potentially affect the safety margins against track buckling.
One of the solutions currently in use or being tested in several countries is to paint the rails white to reduce its maximum temperature.
Extensive tests of white paint and its effects on the LRS were carried out on the French LGV in the hottest areas of the network during the summer of 2021.
Without giving in to current fashion, this presentation aims to describe these tests, their procedures and the concrete results that can be expected from them on the environmental, physical, safety and organizational levels

4752 13 October 2022 at 5:16 pm Michael Bradley Inclusive Passenger Experience – an approach to reduce exclusion and deliver an improved customer experience on high-speed rail

Dimantha Gunawardana – dimantha.gunawardana@hitachirail.com, Hitachi Rail Engineering,
Robert Morland – rob.morland@astutim.com, Astutim Limited
Matteo Zallio – mz461@cam.ac.uk, Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge
Joy Goodman-Deane -jag76@cam.ac.uk, Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge
Paul Plummer – p.plummer@bham.ac.uk, Birmingham Centre for Rail Research and Education, University of Birmingham
P. John Clarkson – pjc10@cam.ac.uk, Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge

Accessibility, design and comfort (Accessibility, design and comfort ) Inclusive Design, Customer Experience

If you have you ever felt stressed, frustrated or excluded before or during a rail journey – then you are not alone. These experiences can occur at any point in a journey and manifest differently for different people and for any number of reasons. An Inclusive Passenger Experience approach can address this through understanding the diversity of capabilities in the population of potential customers, and the relationship to the demands that the rail journey requires of its customers. The approach is rooted in the discipline of Inclusive Design and enables quantification of the relevant characteristics of population that drive exclusion, and enables targeted interventions to maximise the number of people included.
The approach incorporates audit tools, measuring techniques and reliable evaluation methods that enable both a reduction in exclusion and an improvement in customer experience for all customers. For example, the Cambridge Exclusion Calculator and fledgling Digital Interface Exclusion tools provide objective estimates of population exclusion percentages for both physical and digital tasks or complete rail user journeys. This provides a quantified and detailed illumination on what would typically be considered a somewhat intractable expensive and slow-to-measure attribute. Through use of the calculation tools, it is now possible to assess more cost benefit trade-offs in a timely manner during a design or development project, as well as provide data that can inform investment decisions across a complete system and through its lifecycle.
This approach can be applied to just the high-speed part of a journey or to the end-to-end journey of which high-speed rail is a part. In the presentation, through rail case studies, we will show how this approach can shape, reduce exclusion and improve the future of high-speed rail passenger experience.

4754 13 October 2022 at 5:52 pm WONE Michel DEM simulations as a tool to assess the suitability of a new high speed line switch renewal work methodology

Bertrand Avril (SNCF Réseau)
Philippe Pouligny (SNCF Réseau)

Ballasted track (Ballasted track ) Switch renewal works, DEM simulation

In 2021, the switch of Montanay, in the high speed line between Paris and Lyon, was to be replaced. Usually, high speed lines switch renewals are accomplished by the “neutralization “of the switch (that is its replacement by track panels) while the ballast works renewal are done. In the case of Montanay (which switch allows the bifurcation from the main line), neutralization was not possible. Therefore the circulation was to be interrupted for the work duration, which had to be as short as possible given the importance of the traffic in this line. As a consequence, a new methodology for switch and ballast renewal works was proposed so that the particularities of this specific works could be respected. The question we faced then was how we could assess the feasibility and good performances of this new methodology.

In this presentation, I will not focus on how the new methodology was created, and rather present a numerical simulation approach we used to challenge it and compare it with known, established, switch renewal methods.

This approach is known as DEM simulation (DEM standing for Discrete Element Methods), and has been a field of interest for railway research for years, at SNCF and other institutions. DEM methods represent granular materials like ballast as an assembly of grains, interacting through contact laws that contain micromechanical physics relevant for the material. Macro-mechanical properties, such as compactness, or global resistance of the ballast bed, are then seen as a consequence of the collective dynamics of the assembly. We developed a library of functions able to simulate ballast dynamics during various works operations such as roller compaction, tamping and dynamic stabilization.

Being able to chain those elementary processes in a big simulation, we were able to numerically reproduce what would be the result of the new works methodology, and compare it to the would-be result of the old, well-established methodology.

4756 13 October 2022 at 6:42 pm SERVET KARAHAN A preliminary cost and time analysis for high-speed railway tunnel construction

Servet Karahan
Burak Büyükdemirci
Suat Güllü
Candan Gökçeoğlu

Tunnels (Tunnels ) Tunnel Construction, time and cost analysis

In the railway projects completed or under construction by the Republic of Türkiye State Railways (TCDD), tunnels have been excavated in different lithologies and are continuing to be excavating in many different geographies and different lithologies. During the excavation and support of these tunnels, serious difficulties have been encountered due to many different factors. Depending on the degree of difficulties experienced, estimating tunnel costs and completion dates is difficult.
Tunnels constructed by TCDD generally have the same geometric sections and dimensions. They are designed as single tube (Double Line) or double tube (Single Line). In this case, the cost and completion time vary depending on the tunnel length.
In this study, the rock mass parameters of 3 different tunnels with three different NATM rock classifications (brittle, squezing, flowing) completed by TCDD and the model parameters to be used in the analysis were determined. In line with the determined parameters, analyzes were performed in three different tunnel sections such as single tube tunnel section, double tube tunnel section and security tunnel section. The analyzes aim to determine the optimum section and tunneling method by comparing the tunnels, which are considered to be excavated in the same geographical conditions and lithological units, in terms of time and cost, depending on the tunnel section and tunnel length.

4757 13 October 2022 at 10:00 pm Joerg Ostwald High speed rail and aviation – not always a love story – or is it? Intermodal competition (Intermodal competition ) Intermodal competition, Intermodal cooperation

High speed rail reduces significant travel times and thus improves the position for rail in competition with cars, long-distance coaches, and planes. In addition, high speed trains often offer more comfort and are more attractive to customers than conventional rolling stock. Often, stations along high speed rail routes are newly built or renovated and offer an improved travel experience. High speed rail is thus the optimal means to increase the competitiveness of rail, especially in comparison to air travel. There are already examples where rail has been able to either fully replace or at least reduce air traffic. But that is not all. In addition to the goal of reducing short-haul flights, and thus, in addition to the positive climate effects, also increasing the demand situation of the railway and thus the revenues, there is also the opportunity to take over the feeder traffic to the medium- and long-haul flights to the large airports (hubs) with attractive rail offers, and thus to make at least this part of the journey climate-friendly. The cooperation between the Swiss Federal Railways SBB and Switzerland’s national carrier Swiss, with Switzerland’s main airports and other airlines is used as an example to show how the respective strengths of the means of transport can be combined in the best possible way, what challenges and opportunities exist in various fields of action, especially on the sales side and in communication. It will be shown what High speed rail can do to strengthen these intermodal offers and thus contribute to an increase in the modal split of rail and thus to more climate-friendly travel. The presentation is rounded off with a look across the border to the European neighbours to show examples of how the topic of high speed rail and flight intermodality is dealt with there.

4758 14 October 2022 at 2:55 am Yan Xia Introduction to UIC International Railway Standard IRS60682 Design of a High Speed Railway- Energy

Hua Liu

Catenaries (Catenaries ) Energy, OCS

UIC international standard IRS60682 Design of a High Speed Railway – Energy is one of the UIC high-speed railway design series standards compiled by UIC Intercity and High-speed Committee- IRS working group. This standard comprehensively stipulates the main technical requirements of traction power supply, electric power system, SCADA and other high speed railway energy projects. This paper introduces the compilation principle of the standard and the key technical contents of each chapter. The compilation of standards follows the principles of focusing on system and comprehensiveness, highlighting basic concepts, taking into account the interests of all parties and avoiding overlapping, and determines the technical requirements of each chapter through the comparison of high-speed railway standards of various countries in the word. Traction power supply focuses on the introduction of traction power supply system, feeding mode of traction network, power supply plan and other technical content. OCS focuses on the introduction of poles, bracket and registration assembly, suspension, wires and other technical content. Electric power focuses on the introduction of ways of electric power supply, electric power supply requirements and other technical content. SCADA focuses on the introduction of system composition, functions and other technical content. This IRS is a systematic design standard and a basic technical document for HSR energy system. It will provide value-added help to government agencies, infrastructure managers and railway operators, thereby promoting the development of HSR technology.

4760 14 October 2022 at 3:05 am Siqi Sun Health condition assessment and prediction of vehicle equipment Big data management (Big data management ) Health condition assessment, vehicle equipment

The prediction and evaluation of vehicle equipment health status is from the perspective of “material defense”. First, a comprehensive health evaluation index system of vehicle equipment (including passenger cars, multiple units, freight cars, 5T equipment) is built, which integrates the basic account information, dynamic inspection information, static inspection information, maintenance information, historical accident and fault information of the equipment. Taking multiple units as an example, combined with the characteristics of multiple units, Establish a regression evaluation model for the health status of EMU equipment; Then learn the single dimension health status data of multiple units, build a single dimension time series prediction model of multiple units based on artificial neural network, substitute the prediction results of each dimension health status model into the equipment health status regression evaluation model, and obtain the prediction and evaluation values of the future health status of multiple units. Similarly, the prediction and evaluation values of various vehicle equipment health status can be obtained, So as to realize the advanced prevention of vehicle equipment accidents and failures.

4762 14 October 2022 at 7:26 am Yan Hongwei Introduction to IRS60681 Design of High Speed Railway Communication and Signalling Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) (Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) ) design of high speed railway, communication and signalling system

IRS606081 Design of High Speed Railway – Communication and Signalling introduces the basic concept and importance of the system, specify the design principles, and introduces the good practice in the world. This paper introduces the standard from the background, orientation, chapter structure and main technical contents to promote the application of the standard.
The technical contents mainly introduced in this paper include:
1. Signalling
– Main influencing factors and main design principles.
– Basic introduction, design requirements, equipment classification, characteristics and service conditions of different types trackside signalling, switching equipment, and track occupancy detector.
– Basic introduction to interlocking function and interlocking equipment, main interlocking relations between turnout, route and signal.
– Introduce the function, composition, grade, backup system and other general requirements of the train control system are. The composition and function of ground equipment and on-board equipment of ETCS, CTCS and digital ATC each system are introduced in detail.
– Introduce the architecture, control mode and equipment of traffic control system.
– Introduce the basic functions and main monitoring objects of the centralised signalling monitoring system.
2. Communication
– Main influencing factors, main design principles, networks and their bearer business.
– A private railway network or public telecom network can be adopted. Mainly introduces the technology, structure performance and protection measures of private railway transmission network, data network and access network.
– Introduce the functions, equipment, design scheme of weak field coverage and interference avoidance of the EU’s GSM-R system, China’s GSM-R system and Japan’s train wireless communication system based on leaky cable.
3. Supporting equipment and facilities
– The design requirements for cables, power supplies, equipment room and lightning protection.

4763 14 October 2022 at 7:26 am Wenshan Fang Introduction to IRS 60680 Design of a high speed railway — Infrastrucutre

Guangbin Ni

Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) High speed railway, Infrastructure

IRS60680-IRS60683 Design of a High Speed Railway series are a subset of the high-speed IRS programme proposed by UIC Intercity and High-speed Committee (ICHSC). The series IRSs aim to exchange best practice of high speed railway design around the world on infrastructure, communication and signalling, energy, as well as interface. The background, positioning of IRS60680 series and the main content of IRS60680 Design of a High Speed Railway – Infrastructure are introduced in this paper. Best practices of main infrastructure design criteria in various countries presented in IRS 60680 are explained e.g. key design parameters, earthwork compaction criteria and rolling stock maintenance levels. The technical features of IRS60680 and the design differences between high-speed and conventional railway are analyzed. As a conclusion, IRS60680 exchanges best practice of high speed railway infrastructure design in various countries, the IRS could serve as design guidelines for high speed railway infrastructure stakeholders around the world, help to promote technical harmonisation and economic efficiency in the high speed railways.

4765 14 October 2022 at 7:39 am Giovanniluca De Vita RFI Unmanned Railway Vehicle – Dynamic Tests on roller test bench

Eugenio Fedeli
Marcella Di Mario
Arturo Amendola
Davide Tarsitano

Maintenance tools, drones, etc. (Maintenance tools, drones, etc. ) Unmanned Railway Vehicle, Dynamic Tests

The Unmanned Railway Vehicle (URV) is one of the most ambitious project launched by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (RFI) in the last few years. The R&D Department of RFI is in charge of the system specification, development, integration and testing. The URV prototype has been designed to run autonomously on Italian High Speed Lines (HSL) at a maximum speed of 200 km/h with an autonomy of 4 hours, covering most of the single routes of the Italian HSL. The URV prototype has been devised starting from an existing motor bogie, compliant with STI requirements and standards for HSL; its main objective is to enhance the security of the railway infrastructure on High-Speed Lines by means of daily missions before the first commercial run in the early morning. It is equipped with an hybrid powertrain (batteries and diesel engine), an Autonomous Train Operation (ATO) system over ETCS, GoA 4 and a EVC that guarantees an additional protection level. A Surveillance Control System based on a long-distance and perimeter vision, allows the detection and recognition of anomalies using real-time deep learning algorithms for artificial vision.
The aim of the present paper is to describe the dynamic tests carried out on the roller test bench for the URV. The URV design is complex in terms of architecture, functionality, safety and reliability requirements to be fulfilled and, for this reason, the testing approach followed an incremental approach for single subsystems and for the consequent systems integrations. First acceptance test have been performed on the RFI roller test bench in Firenze Osmannoro facility, designed to test railway vehicles, which allows to emulate an endless rail with motorized rollers. In such way, we are able to perform tests that simulate driving and resistance torques applied to the vehicle wheels. The OB Subsystem have been tested with a scenario defined by a balise, commanded by ETCS test environment, placed under the URV BTM antenna with the URV safe hoisted.

4768 14 October 2022 at 7:57 am Mirko Ermini Integrated communication network of satellite and 5G for railway infrastructure diagnostic and predictive maintenance

Eugenio Fedeli
Sebastiano Trigila
Luca Rea
Samuela Persia
Francesco D’Alterio
Giuliano Marcelli
Lorenzo Santilli
Vincenzo De Palo
Fabio Fais
Antonino Di Stefano

Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) 5G and Satellite Telecommunications, Predictive Maintenance

DINoS5G (Diagnostic Integrated Networks of Satellite and 5G) is a research project to develop an end-to-end solution based on integration of a High Throughput Satellite (HTS) system and a 5G terrestrial infrastructure, aiming to provide an advanced communication platform to the distributed diagnostic system operated by the major railway infrastructure managers.
DINoS5G is part of a broader strategic scenario that aims to equip the railway infrastructure with a communication system dedicated to data collection for predictive maintenance, starting from the high-speed network. The strategic needs are: the increase in data collected in terms of number, type and geographical density; the exploitation of over-the-air communication resources with customizable performance on different use cases; sovereignty over the data collected. These objectives are more relevant for the development of predictive maintenance techniques on the high-speed network, as a “primary” network that requires a greater effort to monitor stresses, wear and in general the state of the infrastructure. The rapid extension of 5G coverage can be an enabling technological factor for the spread of a platform such as DINoS5G at the service of predictive maintenance of the high-speed network.
The main technical focus of the DINoS5G is to define, implement and deploy a communication platform, as a 5G network slice, with the aim to exchange and process railway diagnostic information among “Application Entities” and make them independent from the technology used to access the integrated network.
The DINoS5G solution is trialed on a real test site, a unique area in Europe: a railway circuit 6km-long close to Bologna used to test new technologies. The trial goal is to demonstrate feasibility of the solution with respect to the infrastructure managers’ requirements considering the typical application use cases indicated by RFI.

4769 14 October 2022 at 8:00 am Emre YIGIT Investigation of the Effect of Wear Rate and Amount of Rail on Equivalent Conicity

Ümit Yardım – TCDD
M. Furkan Taşlıyan – TCDD
M. Akif Erden – Karabük University

Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Equivalent Conicity, Wear

In railway management, rail and wheel wear out depending on the number of trains passing through the line and the amount of load, and various railway defects occur after wear. Rail wear is inevitable due to the rail-wheel interaction. It is important to investigate the effect of the amount of wear on the equivalent conicity (EC), which defines the wheel-rail interaction, in terms of planning the maintenance work.

The effect of the amount of wear on the equivalent conicity is investigated with measurements made at certain periods. Equivalent conicity measurements are made with the CALIPRI device from 11 different points at each 10 meters at a distance of 100 meters, on the alignment part of a newly exposed main line road made of R260 quality rail steel with 60 E1 rails. Due to the investigated the errors in the rails, the measurements are carried out by ignoring the abrasions in the wheel profile. The amount of wear on the rail is followed by measurements made in two-month periods. EC values for conventional lines according to railway standards are between 0.40 and 0.25. While the first measured EC data is 0.3, as a result of the measurements made until grinding, it is found as: 0.291, 0.269, 0.249, 0.244 and 0.250, respectively. In the measurement made after the grinding process was applied to the rails, the average of EC is found to be 0.206. When the measurement results are examined, it has been concluded that the new rail exhibits wear behavior to achieve the optimum contact up to a certain point after it comes into contact with the wheel, and this has an effect that reduces the equivalent conicity value up to a certain point. The equivalent conicity value of the conventional line has reached the YHT standards which are 0.10 – 0.25 after grinding. As a result, since the equivalent conicity value is expected to increase as the amount of wear increases, carrying out maintenance actions to reduce the amount of wear by keeping this value within railway standarts.

4770 14 October 2022 at 8:15 am Mauro Capurso Ten years of intra-modal competition in Italy: lessons learned by Trenitalia, now ready to use in other European markets Intramodal competition (incl. stations) (Intramodal competition (incl. stations) ) European HSR market, Intramodal competition

The Italian high-speed railway (HSR) market can be considered a mature ‘laboratory’ for intra-modal competition: Italy has been the first, and for a long time the sole, European country opening its domestic HSR network to competition, with open access services by Italo-NTV running since April 2012. At that time, Trenitalia was the first incumbent national rail company in Europe to face actual head-on competition within its boundaries for the most high-tech rail segment, but also the most profitable. The threat immediately turned into an opportunity for Trenitalia, who completed its conversion from a national monopoly into an innovating transport company ‘in the market’.
Head-on competition in the HSR market produced two major effects, only partly shared with liberalisation in other transport markets (e.g. air and long-distance bus): i) an improvement in the quality and variety of the service proposition (increase in the frequency of services, optimisation of fare structure with price discrimination techniques, hybrid HSR-conventional services, wide range of ancillary services including first/last mile adds on), and ii) an increase in the overall demand (mainly diverted from less environmentally friendly modes, e.g. air transport, long-distance bus, car, but also some new, emerging demand).
Both major effects of intra-modal HSR competition appear more incisive than those obtained with previous experiences of market liberalisation in the air transport and long-distance bus markets (improvement of quality and decrease of prices, expansion of destinations, new network models), since these have positive implications not only for individual travellers, but for the society as a whole, thanks to a reduction in emission of CO2 and other pollutants.
Now, after ten years of intra-modal HSR competition within national borders, Trenitalia gained substantial knowledge and is ready to exploit all the best opportunities as newcomers in other European markets (e.g. France, Spain).

4773 14 October 2022 at 8:36 am Yongzheng Zhou Preparation of IRS: Design of a High Speed Railway – Interface IRS 60683

Jigang XUE

Standardisation (Standardisation ) High speed railway, Interface

Interface design is an important part of high-speed railway system integration design. UIC International Railway solution “Design of a High Speed Railway – Interface” IRS 60683 aims to provide solutions for the interface design of worldwide high-speed railway. This paper expounds the preparation background and principles of IRS 60683, analyzes the compiling scope and the standard structure, clarifies the interface concept, and systematically sorts out the interface relationship of high-speed railway, introduces the main content of IRS 60683 through 8 aspects, such as the interfaces between track and sub-line structure, interfaces between infrastructures and communications/signalling systems, etc. During the preparation of IRS 60683, the best practics such as integrated earthing, transit oriented development(TOD), and down-leading of cables has been accepted. IRS 60683 is the first interface standard among countries and international standardization organizations, which reflects the guidance and leadership of UIC standards, and is of great significance to enhance the influence of UIC in the field of international standardization.

4774 14 October 2022 at 8:44 am Evgenii Khrapunov Physical experiment and numerical simulation of flow characteristics around a high-speed train

Sergei Solovev, Deputy head of department, aerodynamics.spb@gmail.com

() Physical experiment, Flow structure

The paper presents a comparison of the results of experimental and numerical studies of the characteristics of the wind effect on a high-speed train. The paper presents data on the experimental studies carried out in a low-turbulent flow, as well as a comparison of the results obtained using several turbulence models and more modern eddy-resolving approaches. Particular attention is paid to obtaining the values ​​of the drag coefficient (including for lateral wind directions), as well as to the distribution of pressure along the bow of the lead car.

4775 14 October 2022 at 8:50 am Filip Janowiec Lessons learned for Polish high speed railway projects Project management (Project management ) Project management, Railway construction

Although the Central Railway line (line connecting Warsaw and Cracow/Katowice) has been operating in Poland since the end of the 1970s, the fundamental works on the network of high-speed railway lines have not yet started. Despite the fact that the topic has returned many times, especially when new funds were obtained from European Union, so far none of the projects has left the concept phase. The case has changed with the announcement by the Polish government in 2015 of the construction of the Solidarity Transport Hub Poland together with the so-called ‘Railway Component’, which is to create a coherent railway network and, in its essential part, include high-speed lines.
The Railway Component include the construction of over 2 000 km of railway lines. The vast majority of them are railway lines, the maximum speed of which will exceed 200 kph for passenger trains, and for some of them it is planned to build a structure enabling trains to move at speeds of up to 350 kph. Such a large undertaking requires proper planning and effective execution.
The paper presents an analysis of selected factors related to the completed projects of high-speed lines in other countries. The values of factors from the planning stage of the construction investment will be discussed, and then compared with the actual values actually incurred after the completion of the investment. Particular emphasis will be placed on the construction time and cost which have been adopted on the basis of previous analyzes for the selected countries internal market.
The obtained results will be discussed and related to the assumptions made by the investor planning the construction of high-speed lines in Poland. The author will present a proposal to verify the assumptions to the expectations based on the experience of foreign managers of high-speed lines.

4778 14 October 2022 at 9:17 am Eduardo de la Guerra Development of a new traction system for independent rotating wheel bogie Operational performance (Operational performance ) distributed traction, efficiency

Increasing speed above 330 km/h with concentrated traction is a challenge limited by the adherence.
The idea is to build a prototype to test on track at operational speed of 360 km/h with an acceleration of 0.05 m/s2 at operational speed for the solution on independently rotating wheels on an existing Talgo AVRIL High-Speed train. This will be the base of distributed traction with Talgo’s concepts that could lead to competitive advantages compared with conventional solution in distributed traction:
• Improved accessibility, no bulky motor bogies along the passenger area and guaranteed low floor access without interior steps.
• Single axle bogies (“rodal”).
• Rotating independent wheels.
• Lightweight.
• High power density.
• High energy efficiency.
The research looks at the most appropriate technology (permanent magnet synchronous motor, induction motor, etc.) to achieve the required performance and whether this can be achieved with direct drive. Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) offer the most compact and appropriate solution to achieving the required performance in terms of power and torque to volume ratio and weight to volume ratio. A motor mounted around a variant of the original Talgo’s wheel and axle arrangement offers the best solution to delivering the required demonstrator performance.
A solution of 350 kW per motor in direct drive and a global efficiency of 98% is achieved, being compatible with the current configuration of the running gear frame.
The motor and the control system have been tested on bench and now we are on the phase of authorization for testing on track. The project is inside the initiative Shift2Rail Program of EU.

4779 14 October 2022 at 9:18 am Andrea Giuricin INTRODUCING COMPETITION IN ITALIAN HIGH-SPEED RAIL

Antoniazzi Federico, Tosatti Roberto

Rail governance and regulation (Rail governance and regulation ) competition, regulation

This study examines the impact created by the introduction of competition within the Italian high-speed rail (HSR) market, comparing the situation before and after the liberalisation process, highlighting the EU’s contribution from a legal point of view. Economic and statistical analyses were used to estimate quantitatively changes and trends within the first HSR market to be liberalised worldwide.
Particular attention was given to the environment and to territorial development when considering the impact of competition, representing the interconnection created between the infrastructure and the economic-social environment where it is developed. In the final part, this paper demonstrates if liberalisation has brought multiple benefits after the arrival of a competitor on the market (Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori) in opposition to the incumbent State-owned company (Trenitalia): the main purpose of this part is to determine what kind of effects the competition could bring to either customers (e.g. reduced travel prices and increased quality) and the competitors (e.g. increasing revenues).

4780 14 October 2022 at 9:24 am Andrea Giuricin Italy, South Korea, Spain and France: evidence from HSR liberalization Rail governance and regulation (Rail governance and regulation ) Regulation, Competition

This study is analyzing the liberalization in the first four liberalized markets in the high-speed segment. The analysis is conducted with elements of competition thanks to the direct experiences as consultant. The process was different in the four markets and the results was also different. The analysis on commercial offer, on yields and business model will be studied in the paper.
Italy was the first market to be liberalized and the strong increase of the offer by two main operators was an important element for the customers. The analysis will be conducted taking in consideration also the track access charge policies of different Governments, because TAC is the main cost for the operators in all the countries.

4781 14 October 2022 at 9:41 am Andrea Giuricin Low cost operators: which future in the European market? Low cost services (Low cost services ) Low cost, european market

Low-cost operators enter in different markets in the high speed railway in Europe. The business model is different from legacy operator. As it was analyzed in the aviation model, the low cost has a big opportunity of growth in many markets.
SNCF created Ouigo in France and it introduced the low-cost model in parallel with the full service carrier and it expanded this model to Spain in 2021. In the Iberic market, the incumbent RENFE created a new product, AVLO, to answer to the entrance in the market of Ouigo.
The main elements of low cost operations will be analyzed both from revenue and cost side as the maintenance, revenue management, commercial offers.

4782 14 October 2022 at 9:48 am Andrea Giuricin Track Access Charge: which regulation after the pandemic? In regulatory terms (In regulatory terms ) TAC, regulation

The track access charge is one of the main cost for the railway companies in the high-speed sector. Regulation is a key element of track access charge and the independent Authorities and Governments have different possibilities to decide the level of the cost. Different methods of calculation are possible and the level of TAC is very different from country to country.
The paper will make a benchmark of the level of the TAC for different European countries and there will be an explanation of the criteria of decision from different Governments.

4785 14 October 2022 at 10:08 am Abderrahman Ait-Ali Capacity Allocations in Deregulated Railway Markets

Jonas Eliasson

Access to capacity in infrastructure and stations (Access to capacity in infrastructure and stations ) capacity allocation, deregulated market

Faced with increasing challenges, railways around Europe have recently undergone major reforms that aim to improve the efficiency and competitivity of the rail sector. New market structures such as vertical separation and deregulation can allow for reduced public expenditures, increased market competition, and more efficient railway systems.

However, these structures have introduced new challenges for managing rail infrastructure and operations. Railway capacity allocation, previously internally performed within the monopolistic national companies, needs to be conferred to an infrastructure manager (IM). The IM is responsible for transparent and (still) efficient allocation of available capacity to the different (often competing) licensed railway undertakings (RUs).

In this context, developing new methods and approaches that can help allocate capacity in a deregulated (vertically separated) railway market is therefore highly relevant. This work is concerned with successive allocation of capacity for publicly controlled and high-speed commercial traffic within a segmented railway market.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) methods allow public transport agencies (PTAs) to assess the social welfare of their traffic plans for publicly controlled train services and to create efficient timetable. A market-based transparent capacity allocation approach where IMs are pricing commercial highspeed train paths to solve capacity conflicts with publicly controlled traffic. Additionally, a method is developed to help estimate passenger demand and create efficient train timetables.

Future capacity allocation in deregulated markets may include solution methods from this work. However, further experimentations are still required to address concerns such as acceptability, data, and legislation. Future works can include prototyping and pilot projects on the proposed solutions and investigating legal and digitalization strategies to facilitate the implementation of such solutions.

4786 14 October 2022 at 10:08 am steven cervello Smartest®, a solution to enable the condition-based maintenance of wheelsets

Stefano Cantini, Daniele Regazzi

Maintenance (operations and maintenance)(Maintenance (operations and maintenance)) CBM, wheelset

Being railway wheelsets safety critical components, the continuous monitoring of their behaviour in service would provide a breakthrough in terms of efficiency and reliability, in the management of the periodical inspections and maintenance, necessary to ensure its integrity and durability.
The present paper describes the CBM solutions developed by Lucchini RS and identified by the name Smartset:
Smartset-Load (TLR 9) is an innovative device embedded on the axle which permanently monitors the axle stresses, providing to the cloud continuously updated load spectra. Smartset-Load® was developed to provide stress data representative of long-term service conditions, to be used for crack propagation calculations with the scope of defining an appropriate NDT inspection interval.
The first applications show that in general NDT intervals can be enlarged with respect to the ones defined in the maintenance manuals, but also that their values depend very much on the specific track network characteristics.
Smartset-Load has been further implemented to geo-localize hot spots where the higher load levels take place along the track. The post-processing of the data recorded during the vehicle’s daily pass-by from the hotspots allows to identify possible track deterioration and need for inspection and maintenance.
Smartset-Vibe (TLR 6) is a compact intelligent sensor that is mounted on the axle box and monitors and processes the vibration according to different algorithms, each of them developed to identify specific defects: wheel flats, wheel wear that can initiate wheelset hunting instability, bearing fatigue damages, a large crack in the axle; apart from the last case, defects are found at an initial stage enabling to schedule in advance the corrective maintenance without impacting on the service; the identification of a large crack is intended to provide alert sufficiently in advanced in order to safely retire the vehicle from service for inspection before the axle would break.


Merve Tugyanoglu, mervetugyanoglu@ tcdd.gov.tr;
Efe Behcet Bingor, efebehcetbingor@ tcdd.gov.tr

Maintenance (incl. tools) (Maintenance (incl. tools) ) High Speed Train, Flash Butt Welding

Flash butt welding is a commonly used welding method in railway construction and maintenance. The track that is constructed with flush butt welding should carry the vehicle operation forces, resist fatigue loads and show sufficient performance in impact loads. During high speed train (HST) in operations, the welded areas should also indicate similar strength and performance, created by high speed to train dynamics.

In this welding technique, like other techniques, some type of defects may occur during the welding and these defects may be causes of the rail fracture before the expected rail life cycle. Through this study, collected from HST line, two broken high speed rail material including the heat affected zone which are implementation of flash butt welding have been analyzed with respect to visual inspection, chemical analyses, hardness testing, optical microscope investigation, and scanning electron microscopy.

In the visual inspection, wheel rolling path which is stemmed from rail-wheel interface and surface of the broken rails were examined. In the chemical analyses, a sample which was prepared from broken rails was investigated and three average values of chemical analyses were acquired by spectrometer. Hardness scanning was applied to starting from rail broken surface to all main research areas which also includes heat affected zone. In addition to this, implementations of etching (before and after) of broken rail samples were viewed by optical microscope in several magnification. Moreover, some samples which were taken from defective points were examined by scanning electron microscope.

The analyses results showed that both of the broken rails had inclusions of sulphur, manganese and ferric oxide. A force which is stemmed from vehicle dynamics and a stress which is arisen from welding process and thermal difference in environmental conditions provide a total stress status on the rail. Because of this reason, the crack which initiates from welding inc

4791 14 October 2022 at 11:10 am Jose Antonio Marcos Dynamic maintenance management approach based on Real time monitoring and artificial intelligence using digital twins. Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) Maintenance, Artificial intelligence

Improving maintenance and avoiding production downtime with predic-tive services has become a compulsory requirement for operators willing to opti-mise reliability while reduce their operational costs.
To achieve these challenges, this paper explains how Talgo, with more than 80 years of experience in rolling, has developed a Dynamic Maintenance Management ap-proach using digital platforms for real-time monitoring and predictive maintenance based on artificial intelligence and digital twins. The paper also explains the new digital platform for automatic train inspection based on machine vision.
These platforms provide smart data supporting operators and maintainers activities with valuable information in real time.
Because of this, the main operation KPIs such as: passenger experience, energy ef-ficiency, safety, availability, reliability, and maintainability have been importantly improved. Higher trains availability due the savings in workshop inspections time and higher capacity in maintenance sites can be achieved easing rolling stock O&M.

4792 14 October 2022 at 11:15 am Marcella Di Mario Innovative technologies for people with reduced mobility in the station environment Inclusive and accessible facilties for all (Inclusive and accessible facilties for all ) 5G, Ultra Wideband

High Speed line is a fundamental element to the entire system of city mobility. All HS stations are designed to perform functions as large transport hubs, but also play a commercial and cultural role. In these important transport hubs, it is essential to guarantee accessibility and independent use of rail services for all users. The project is framed in HS Station, including design and construction subtopic, based on Inclusive and accessible facilities for all detailed sub-topic. New communications technologies promise to enhance railway stations with extremely low latency and high reliability, making possible the station of the future where connected services combine to create a seamless travel experience for all passengers. Indeed, it is possible to use this type of technology to assist people with disabilities so that they can move around the station with full autonomy. This service presents the innovation of providing an assisted driving application, which does not require additional devices but only involves the use of the personal smartphone. The proposed solution uses techniques based on the “Data Fusion” of the 5G signal and the Ultra-Wideband signal present in the latest generation smartphones, in order to implement the Indoor Navigation service in real time with very high precision. Thanks to the speed and low latency of 5G network, it is possible to increase the number of devices that can be connected and reduce the power consumption of devices, enabling longer battery life while processing of large volumes of date. The guidance service to be implemented will utilise the real-time positioning functions offered by the Ultra-Wide Band together with 5G network. Through the app, the user will have a map of the station that will be able to locate the person within it in real time. Through haptic and/or audio feedback, will be able to navigate within the station to reach the desired area, including arriving at the carriage assigned by the train ticket.

4794 14 October 2022 at 11:19 am Pinar Yilmazer Biodiversity and Infrastructure Synergies and Opportunities for European Transport Networks

– Yannick Autret, Commissariat général au développement durable (CGDD), France

– Lucie Anderton, Head of UIC Sustainability

Ecology and Ecosystems for flora & fauna (Ecology and Ecosystems for flora & fauna ) Transport infrastructure, Habitat management

High-speed railways (HSR) has the reputation of being the ‘heavy infrastructure’ on railways. The impact of HSR infrastructure on wildlife, landscapes, the climate and people are potentially the ‘Achilles heel’ of high-speed expansion. Prof. Bill Lauwrence used the term ” tsunami of infrastructure” at IENE 2016 in Lyon, highlighting that in fact around 60% of the ?transport? infrastructure that will exist in 2060 has not yet been built. Most of that will be built in developing countries with massive investments that could cumulate to more than $94 trillion by 2040. The impact of transport? infrastructure on biodiversity has been known for several decades and is now a stated certainty. HSR, even more than conventional rail infrastructure, are argued to be a significant barrier to the movement of wildlife, creating a severance of habitat and so preventing migration or access to foraging land. However, the initiatives and knowledge developed to mitigate its impact are scattered and are not, or only partially integrated into an insufficiently advanced strategic reflection. In fact, in order to achieve this objective, it is necessary to break out of the usual frameworks of reflection and to create new interdisciplinary paradigms to respond to the issues at stake. Being aware of these challenges, the UN, the G7, the G20, the OECD and the international investment banks are beginning to try to reconcile economic development with environmental protection or restoration.
Europe plays an essential role in this objective. Its vast professional network, the expertise at its disposal and the willingness of its governments to try to reduce both climate change and the decline of biodiversity are essential ingredients. At the heart of this nexus, the BISON project, an intense cooperation initiative between administrations, research centres, companies and NGOs, aims to open the way to new synergies that will bring ambitions and hopes both for our continent and most certainly beyond.

4795 14 October 2022 at 11:26 am Ragi Edge Talgo AVRIL Life Cycle Assessment results. Energy measurement and efficiency (Energy measurement and efficiency ) Recyclability, Environmental Impacts

In terms of environment sustainability, railway is one of the more efficient solution for mobility. One of the indicators used to make this statement is the comparison of greenhouse gas emissions (measured in CO2eq emissions/passenger km) during the train’s operating phase. It is estimated that these emissions, in the case of rail, are 10 times less than road transport and 20 times less than air transport (Source: European Environmental Agency)
This being true, it should not be forgotten that, on the one hand, there are more environmental impacts in addition to greenhouse gas emissions (consumption of raw materials, potential water pollution, external noise, etc.) and, on the other hand, the impacts are not they give only in the phase of use (downstream) but also in the phases of collection of materials (upstream) and Manufacturing (core).
On the other hand, it is important to measure environmental sustainability in the same way in different organizations, for this reason, it is important to have international standards to address the performance of Life Cycle Analysis (ISO14040 and ISO14044 norms), the Environmental Product Declarations (standard ISO14025 and Product Category Rules UN CPC 495) and recyclability analyzes in the railway sector (UNIFE Reciclability and Recoveravility calculation method)
In this context, Talgo has carried out the LCA of one of its most recent platforms, the Talgo AVRIL, a train that will circulate in Spain and France (the study has focused on one of the variants that will circulate in Spain: a fixed gauge train of 581 seats. From this LCA, an environmental product declaration is extracted, which is verified by an authorized and independent part, and published in the International EPD System.
The results of the LCA carried out reflect very positive results, highlighting the results in terms of the recyclability index (93.8% of recyclability potential) emissions (8.8gCO2 eq/km pas considering all phases: up, core and downstream).

4796 14 October 2022 at 11:26 am Amine CHAKIR HSB2C – High Speed Bridge compatibility Classes

Muriel Ragueneau
Nicolas Chaussard

At network scale (At network scale ) Dynamic interface, Bridge

The aim of the technical specifications for interoperability in Europe is to move people and goods towards a sustainable, safe and borderless railway system. These specifications are only applied to new or upgraded tracks.
To ensure the safety of new rolling stock on existing tracks that do not meet the specifications, the European regulator requires railway undertakings to carry out numerous road compatibility checks. This is a lengthy and complex process due to the differences between European Member States in terms of existing infrastructure and local regulations.

The purpose of this paper is to present a simplified method developed by SNCF RESEAU and tested on the high-speed network in FRANCE to make the dynamic compatibility of new rolling stock with existing railway bridges safer and less complex. This method is based on the creation of a new dynamic interface called HSB2C “High Speed Bridge Compatibility Classes”. The HSB2C interface can be used to classify all existing bridges according to their dynamic and static performances.
The adoption of this new interface allows users to avoid checking all the bridges one by one (more than 1400 high-speed bridges in France), which reduce time and costs by 10. The digitisation of bridge data at SNCF RESEAU has facilitated the ranking of bridges and the streamlining of this process has enabled the company to guarantee a high level of reliability of the data on which the safety of the traffic relies.
This simplified and more reliable process could be used as a model and deployed by other rail infrastructure managers to facilitate the interoperability of the rail system in Europe.

4797 14 October 2022 at 11:27 am Eugenio Fedeli The RFI Computer-Based Interlocking Standard Platform

V. Fiorani
P. Firmi
L. Cavacchioli
A. Amendola

Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) (Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) ) CBI-Standardization, ERTMS-Oriented

RFI has planned to migrate by 2036 the Italian railway network’s signalling system to ERTMS Level 2, technology that is currently used to manage the Italian high-speed infrastructure.
Such a programme will provide for over a thousand of legacy relay interlocking systems to be replaced by Computer-Based Interlocking (CBI) by the end of the plan.
In order to increase standardization across the Italian network and reduce costs, RFI started in 2019 the project for the development of a new Computer-Based Interlocking platform, of which RFI will own the full intellectual property.
The introduction of the standard platform along with the ERTMS-Level 2 program implementation, will provide a uniform operation on the overall network, being it high-speed or conventional, simplifying network management and increasing service level on the overall infrastructure.
Moreover, CBI standardization will dramatically reduce the total life cycle cost of the Command-and-Control Systems (CCS), due to great simplification of logistics, internalization of maintenance activities, as well as more efficient design in CBI application project and maintenance.
Finally, the RFI-owned CBI platform will increase the supplier competition and expand the market, through product standardization, as suppliers will be allowed to build interlocking systems using the RFI project.
A new organizational model has been implemented for the development of the new Computer-Based Interlocking platform: full architecture design and product development are carried out by the RFI Research & Development Department supported by principal Italian Research Institutes (Universities and Research Centres) for the development of specific innovative components of the platform. At the end of the project, RFI is going to own a new ERTMS-oriented, standardized CBI reference platform, easy to use for the application design, as well as to install, upgrade and maintain.

4802 14 October 2022 at 12:03 pm ABDULLAH ÇORAK Sustainability Activities of Halkalı-Kapıkule Rapid Line Construction Project Protected sites, general ecology and ecosystems (Protected sites, general ecology and ecosystems ) Sustainability, environment, railway

Sustainability is defined as the ability to continue over the long term. Sustainability of development can only be achieved by meeting the needs of current generation and considering the needs of future generation at the same time. Transportation includes the processes which have serious effect on environment. Therefore, many countries put emphasis on environmental sustainability.
In Türkiye, minimising environmental damage and ensuring sustainability in transportation activities are important. Therefore, many railway construction projects have been launched. Among these projects, environment-oriented approaches have been applied to Halkalı-Kapıkule Rapid Line Project, which is still under construction and was awarded the project of the year of 2021 for promotion of sustainability and main aspects of biodiversity.
In our project, 9 management plans including mitigating measures and monitoring of environmental impacts have been drawn up:
– Environment management plan
– Waste management plan
– Vegetable soil management plan
– Sedimentation and erosion control management plan
– Traffic management plan
– Authorization and permission plan
– Social facilities and services plan
– Complaint management plan
– Construction site management plan
Environmental impacts of this project can be evaluated under two main topics: Impact occurring during the construction and impact that occur during the operation.
Mitigating measures during the construction:
• Wastes
• Waste water
• Fuel and oil leakages
• Noise, vibration, air quality
• Surface water quality
• Prevention of erosion
• Protection of vegetable soil
• Protection of biodiversity
• Impact on cultural properties
Mitigating measures during the operation:
• Impact on wildlife occurring during the operation
• Noise impact that occurring during the operation
• Impact on agricultural and pasture area

All these mitigating measures have been elaborately implemented on the site and good practice examples have been set.

4803 14 October 2022 at 12:04 pm HULUSİ AYDEMİR Province Selection for High Speed Train in Turkey

Mustafa Kürşat ÇUBUK

Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) High-speed trains, Turkey

High-speed trains (HSR), which are high energy efficient, environmentally friendly, economical and time-saving, are among the important transportation projects in Turkey recently. In this study, province selection was made for the new high-speed train planned to be built in Turkey. In this context, the coordinates of 53 provinces with a railway network in Turkey were transferred to the Geographical Information System in line with the data received from the relevant institution operating the high-speed train. Alternative provinces were found according to the criteria of total population, tourism and the number of students studying at universities in these provinces, with the intervals determined as a result of expert opinions in QGIS. In this direction, the alternative provinces obtained for the high-speed train are 14 provinces (Adıyaman, Aydın, Diyarbakır etc.). In order to determine the relative status of these provinces in the selection of high-speed train provinces, five criteria were determined as ‘Population’, ‘Tourism’, ‘Number of students studying at the university’, ‘Socio-economic development’ and ‘Distance to the nearest high-speed train’. The importance weights of these criteria and the relative status of alternative provinces are listed by the AHP technique according to the opinions of the people working in the units related to the construction of high-speed trains and experts in the field and the data obtained from the relevant institutions of the criteria in Turkey. As a result of this ranking, the tourism criterion is the first in the importance weights of the criteria determined for the high-speed train, and the most suitable first five provinces are Aydın, Hatay, Şanlıurfa, Tekirdağ and Kütahya, respectively. According to the results of this study, it will be beneficial to establish a connection with the high-speed train network, which is under construction in the surrounding provinces of Aydın, where tourism activities are active.

4806 14 October 2022 at 12:17 pm Andrea Vecchi Testing and Implementation of the Earthquake Early Warning System on the High-Speed line between Rome and Naples

Paola FIRMI, Eugenio FEDELI, Franco IACOBINI, Andrea VECCHI, Alberto MAURO, Giulia POLIMANTI, Alessandro CARUSO.

Traffic management and operations under extreme natural hazardous events (Traffic management and operations under extreme natural hazardous events ) Earthquake, Early Warning

Italy is exposed to a considerable seismic risk and the Italian Infrastructure Manager (RFI – Rete Ferroviaria Italiana) is responsible for about 1.400 km of High-Speed rails, some of which are located in moderate to high seismicity areas. For these reasons, particular attention is being paid by RFI to the constant development of active countermeasures for reducing the seismic risks in the railway environment. Accordingly, RFI has implemented and tested an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) on the High-Speed line between Rome and Naples. The main purpose of the system is to measure the intensity of an earthquake in the very first seconds of the event by means of RFI seismic stations installed along the railway line. On the basis of appropriate methods, the intensity of shaking, which is more likely to occur at a specific site, can be estimated and the system can activate emergency procedures for slowing down/stopping trains approaching the epicentre. The paper presents the main features of the experimental activity, the results so far obtained during the testing phase and the programme for the extension of the system to the remaining Italian High-Speed lines.

4807 14 October 2022 at 12:23 pm issa moussa Establishment of a reliable indicator of confidence for the data of the digital twin

Sébastien REMY, Guillaume DUCELLIER, Flavien VIGUIER

Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Digital twin; Decision making; Data collection; trusted data indicator; asset management; Railway infrastructure.


The digital twin is a digital representation of physical assets. It makes available to users an informational level (description layer), the means of processing this information (analytical layer) as well as a real time representation aimed to establish the configuration of the network at time t, in the past or in the future (configuration management layer).
At SNCF Reseau we are working on development of new digital twin for our network. This digital twin will be fully based on different data resources (images, 3D data, maintenance databases, …). Those data will update the real state of the network system in real-time and give to asset manager and maintainer a precise visualisation of the installation.
With this approach we can manage our physical assets virtually and have more trains, which arrive on time and safely. The aim of this paper is the implementation of a methodology or new approach which will allow us to improve and qualify our confidence in the data which feed this digital twin. This confidence score will be based on different data sources, users, history, freshness of information, …etc and will give the opportunity to identify, manage and prioritize technically and economically every use case driven by the digital twin. This problem is the subject of a real challenge today, whether the field of health (Smith et al. 2020), (Götzinger et al., s. d.) or in manufacturing field (Suhail et al. 2021) or others.


Suhail, S., R. Hussain, R. Jurdak, et C.S. Hong. 2021. « Trustworthy Digital Twins in the Industrial Internet of Things with Blockchain ». IEEE Internet Computing. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIC.2021.3059320.
Smith, N.A.S., D. Sinden, S.A. Thomas, M. Romanchikova, J.E. Talbott, et M. Adeogun. 2020. « Building Confidence in Digital Health through Metrology ». British Journal of Radiology 93 (1109). https

4809 14 October 2022 at 12:56 pm Amine DHEMAIED Durability of ballasted tracks: the challenges of preventive maintenance of the substructure


Renewals (railway system)(Renewals (railway system)) substructure, diagnosis

The first European high-speed line Paris-Lyon (LN1), built during the 80’s, is now aging. As a major thoroughfare, it faces an increase of traffic and of maintenance operations to restore the track level. The high-speed line design was improved for new lines after the LN1 construction which has a specific design especially for track-bed. To guarantee the durability of this ballasted track and the associated operational objectives, corrective operations are needed. The infrastructure components’ renewal (rail, sleepers, and ballast) is planned between 2020-2023 thanks to high-performance machines. However, this work does not include any operations on substructure or drainage systems in the absence of disorders related to the substructure known by the maintainer to date. A holistic approach is proposed to maintain the performance and prevent the emergence of disorders. This approach is based on a thorough analysis combining geotechnics and geophysics, the global railway environment, maintenance operations, and track geometry quality. The results of this analysis highlight critical zones with presence of mud and water saturation in substructures and sometimes ballast layers. An adapted diagnosis is proposed to identify the origin of the observed problems. The first renewal works on infrastructure 2020-2022 confirmed the presence of the detected disorders in the ballast and at the top of sub-ballast layers. Punchy operations to lay a separation/filtration geotextile under the ballast layer remains difficult to carry out. This is due to peculiarity of the line, a lack of suitable industrial resources and the most important thing that it’s a “plaster” solution. After all these observations, many questions are raised: 1) how to qualify/measure the consequences of these disorders on the mechanical behaviors of the substructure? 2) is drainage maintenance and/or upgrading sufficient to achieve the expected performance of the line? 3) is a high level of maintenance acceptable

4810 14 October 2022 at 1:00 pm Andres Sanchez Running Dynamics from Talgo Avril very high speed train with variable gauge Functional & technical specifications (Functional & technical specifications ) variable gauge, high speed

Brand new very high speed Talgo Avril train designed and manufactured for Renfe S106 includes next main disruptive characteristics:
– Commercial Speed: 330 km/h
– Variable gauge: 1435 mm and 1668 mm
– Lateral non compensated acceleration at track level: 1.0 m/s2
This is the first train able to run up to 330 km/h (360 km/h in homologation track test) which includes and automatic variable gauge, train can modify it with no need to stop. Due to that train is homologated with no limitation of its performance, both speed and cant deficiency can be achieved in standard 1435 mm gauge and Iberian gauge 1668 mm.
Moreover, for the running dynamics homologation new version of EN 14363:2016 standard has been used, which includes the addition stability zone, whose test were also performed in both gauges including required one for high conicity configuration and fault conditions. All this kind of tests far exceed previous state-of-the-art as no train had ever been designed, manufactured and homologated in such severe conditions, including variable gauge system, which may overweight unsprung mass compared to fix gauge version.
This kind of homologation process went beyond previous state-of-the-art as the effect of the track gauge was not included in EN 14363:2016 and Iberian gauge 1668 mm tracks had never been allowed/prepared before for very high speed.
Additionally, train included two different types or running gears, conventional motor bogies and Talgo trailer Rodals (single axle independent rotating and guided wheels). Then not only one type of running gear was needed to meet requirements but two completely different solutions have been designed, manufactured and homologated. Using also usual Talgo articulated train configuration.
Even though these hard challenges, train has fulfilled successfully EN 14363:2016 requirements with no lack, this innovative project succeeding goes a big step beyond in the railway/running dynamics state-of-the-art.

4812 14 October 2022 at 1:23 pm Rui Xue Deep learning-based Rail Disruption Detection in the Context of Multimodal Transportation

Guohua Li
Xiaoning Ma

Railway resilience to extreme weather events and emergencies (Railway resilience to extreme weather events and emergencies ) Disruption detection, Railway resilience

Modern rail development allows ever-increasing mobility with the ever-expanding rail system. Unfortunately, this developed rail network in terms of multimodal transportation may lead to a vulnerable transport system when this complex transport system is subject to more uncertainties due to frequent interactions and cascading effects. It is, therefore, essential to develop a method for detecting these disruptions and identifying their dynamics in this more complex system than ever.

To address these uncertainties, we propose a novel hypergraph-enhanced neural network approach to forecast disruption dynamics in the multimodal transportation network. We regard the overall solution as two parts, information representation, and status prediction, respectively. To begin with, a China multimodal transportation network is constructed, involving aviation, metro, and rail. Based on this aviation-metro-rail system, the first part represents graph data through a hypergraph structure. This hypergraph structure is designed to capture the complex high-order dependencies in the network. The second part of the framework is to integrate collected information and predict the status through a graph neural network (GNN).

Experiments are carried out on the simulated dataset by the SEIR model on China’s multimodal transport network. Several initial conditions are simulated to explore their dynamics. Various disruptions, such as strong winds, floods, emergencies, etc., are included in this dataset. Data are calibrated with the historical disruption data from China railways. As compared to other baseline and state-of-the-art models, this approach shows promising results, especially in complex scenarios. This practical solution to any disruption allows operators to respond better to a more robust transport network and a more resilient rail system.

4814 14 October 2022 at 1:28 pm LEDET Marc Ballasted tracks on high-speed lines: ever more efficient maintenance for increased durability Maintenance (incl. tools) (Maintenance (incl. tools) ) Track geometry, condition of the rail

More than 40 years of French high-speed railways experience have enabled developments that prove the constantly improved efficiency of the maintenance of these lines and improve their lifespan.
The track geometry and the condition of the rails are 2 maintenance subjects that illustrate this improvement.
– On the one hand, the efficiency of rail maintenance reduces the degradation of track geometry:
o how do on-board imaging innovations enable early rail diagnostics before track geometry defects appear?
– On the other hand, more permanent geometry corrections contribute to protecting rail from aggressiveness of high-speed trains.
o how do the automated analysis of measurement data contributes to better prioritization of the most harmful defects?
This virtuous combination promotes the preservation of other components such as the ballast and extends their life
On the economic side, these elements contribute to a reduction in maintenance costs and a postponement of component regenerations, therefore to an improvement in the LCC.

4815 14 October 2022 at 1:30 pm Donatella Fochesato Ensuring the strategic alignment of asset management high speed railway infrastructure processes

Irene Roda, Adalberto Polenghi , Margherita Luciano , Isabella Tordi , Lorenzo Di Pasquale , Ivan Cavaiuolo

() Value and organisational strategy, Fuzzy AHP

For high speed railway infrastructure management companies, in order to achieve their business goals, it is important to focus on an effective assets management. Adopting asset management practices in an high speed context means aligning the organizational objectives into technical and financial de-cisions, plans and activities, creating and obtaining value from assets. That is why the alignment of the AM strategy with the organisational strategy is cru-cial: in fact, Asset Management plans and activities should be implemented in accordance with it. Once defined this goal, a fuzzy AHP-based methodolo-gy is presented in this paper, also in relation to a maturity assessment process, based on a specific model, already carried out in the company. The methodol-ogy aims at classifying the different priorities of AM improvement actions, always ensuring strategic alignment with company long-term vision. The PoC (Proof of Concept) of the methodology has been already pointed out and its implementation in the high speed context is underway.

4816 14 October 2022 at 2:03 pm Charles-Frédérick Amaudruz Real-time delay estimation with macroscopic simulation

Mathieu Gagnon, SNCF
Christelle Lerin, SNCF

Traffic management and operations under regular conditions (Traffic management and operations under regular conditions ) Traffic management systems, Railway simulation

SNCF Voyageurs / TGV-Intercités operates over 500 highspeed trains (TGV) per day in France. The system can be highly tense during evening peaks with up to 13 trains on the same track section per hour. Thus, minor delays can affect operations, especially for long-distance trains. Here, the goal is to optimize global performance regarding trains and quality of service for passengers.
In this work, we developed a real-time decision-support tool helping decision makers to manage arrival time at destination and intermediate stops. Thus, they can produce the best passenger information and reschedule or adapt resources if necessary. The idea is to warn operators when a train is supposed to be delayed in the future, or to recover delay. This tool has been developed for the service managing traffic and operating trains with destination to the eastern & south-eastern parts of France.

A discrete event simulator is used in real-time to predict arrival train times at each remaining stop. Signals are modelled as headway constraints in the simulation, and reordering rules at junctions are also modelled when a conflict occurs so that delays can propagate properly. The simulator runs every 30 seconds in order to display arrival times with up-to-date train location data, that are collected continuously.
Our tool consists in a web application that displays simulated arrival times for delayed trains. Simulation details are presented to the user to add explanations to the delay estimations: expected conflicts in line or at junctions and possible catch-up.

Three experiments were led in TGV operating centers, where our users oversee passenger information and timetable adaptations. According to most of them, our tool is a nice addition to the ones they currently use. They find it relevant in the information it displays and reliable in its delay predictions. During the more recent experiments, 90% of our delay predictions were correct, a 10-point increase to the average delay estimations.

4817 14 October 2022 at 2:04 pm Nicoletta Antonias Sustainable infrastructures to enable new opportunities for development of territories Environmental and Social impact assessments & consents (Environmental and Social impact assessments & consents ) Sustainable Infrastructures, Social Projects

In the new vision of infrastructural development, railway projects represent a key opportunity to trigger new dynamics of economic, social, environmental, cultural and touristic growth of the involved territories.
In this perspective RFI promotes an innovative, systemic and multidisciplinary approach for the infrastructural development that rethinks mobility in a sustainable way, bringing in territories, cities and communities the opportunity for an interdisciplinary dialogue to design and build new models of social life. Innovative Sustainability Studies (ISS) offer a clear interpretation of the potential of the infrastructure to generate value as an expression of a real social project capable to contribute to the redefinition of the ecosystem in a broadest sense.
The methodological approach envisages an analysis of the reference context where the related initiatives/projects are located and of the specific vocations of territories, in order to grasp the identity value of territories and resident communities, and to promote the growth of the community by developing infrastructural projects that enable the progress of the territory.
The analysis of the reference context is based on a socio-economic analysis of the territory involved, with particular reference to the data of the social composition (level of employment, Gross Domestic Product, motorization rate etc…) and to the commercial and economic context (number of companies, economic sectors , territorial distribution etc…), in order to identify the main features and trends representing the territory under analysis.
This paper highlights how studies and analyses of sustainability can contribute to the generation of “right projects” according to the characteristics of the specific territories in which they are inserted. The new high- speed line Salerno- Reggio Calabria is a factual example of an infrastructure that creates value for the communities when a detailed socio-territorial analysis is performed.

4818 14 October 2022 at 2:07 pm Vincent Mathouraparsad Optimized dynamic design rules for high-speed bridges by using digital twin

Muriel Ragueneau
Huyen Nguyen

Engineering and handbooks (Engineering and handbooks ) digital twin, dynamic bridge behaviour

Dynamic behaviours of bridges on highspeed railway is often the main criteria in bridges design. It has a huge impact on the choice and thus on the building cost. Eurocode standards define the dynamic constitutive laws for bridge design which are based on the european research program ERRI with few experimental test results. Therefore The design rules are disavantageous that implies the choice of oversized bridges and extra building costs. In the interest of improving the safety of the infrastructure and optimising the cost, SNCF Réseau has carried out an great monitoring campaign of its bridges on the high-speed railway network. By using an innovative system patented by SNCF Réseau, the dynamic displacement and the acceleration of bridges were measured. These measured values are correlated with the results simulating from digital twins and optimized design rule were defined for the case of bridges on the highspeed network like damping coefficients and structural stiffness. This paper deals firstly with of the applied method for refining the dynamic constitive laws. Then it presents the adjusted values for bridges on high-speed railroad network.

4822 14 October 2022 at 2:22 pm Alf Johansen INTERNATIONAL TERRITORY MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  (Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  ) International territory managemnt, Cross-border planning

Public stakeholders in Sweden, Denmark and Norway have continously cooperated in better international connections since the Scandinavian contries have free movement of labour and services between the contries since 1950:s. To improve the mobility it is important to enable the railway infrastructure and the HSR-triangle Oslo – Stockholm – Copenhagen.
This involves international territory management between the contrries and the authorities as well as the participation in inter-municipality project for emission free transport system and cities.
The Skagerrakbanan project have conviced the partners that green economy also means better life, more proftible companies, higher public education and development as long ther is a backbone of fast environmentalfrendly transports modes. It have also given evidence that with out a backbone it will give slower changes to green economy and less proftible companies and in rual areas it will be completely stand still in development.
This indicate that international high speed lines enable the cross border devlopment to be powerful and sustanible if the area use strategic territorry management for development and wellfare.
Backbone investment of 10 bn Euro creates 40 bn Euro in increaced activity in the economy in 20 years time span. This means that high speed cross border lines improves the economy in both contries since it enable a inter-change in business, tourism, education, development between the contires. Without backbone investment and territorial managemnt nothing will be started an de-evolution will take pleace instead.

4823 14 October 2022 at 2:24 pm Nguyen Huyen How to improve the bridges design to reduce maintenance’s cost on high-speed lines?

Ragueneau Muriel
Mathouraparsad Vincent
Pouhin Tristan

Earthworks, tunnels, bridges (Earthworks, tunnels, bridges ) track/bridge interaction, gradient thermique

On high-speed lines, it is important that the bridges are enough rigid to maintain a good track profile and ensure rail-wheel contact. Long-deck bridges are fairly rigid and do not deform much under traffic loads. However, due to temperature variations, the expansion of the bridges brings additional stress in the continuous welded rail (CWR) and the existence of the expansion devices are needed to absorb the expansion of both rail and viaducts. These devices are very sensible points which require a significant maintenance effort.

On the other hand, steel-concrete composite bridges, thanks to their mechanical and economic efficiency, are often used on high-speed lines. However, under the action of temperature, there is a thermal gradient between the two materials. Steel bridge girders cannot expand longitudinally because they are blocked by the concrete slab. This restricted thermal expansion provokes a vertical displacement of CWR. This phenomenon increases considerably the cost and makes maintenance operations more frequent during hot periods. The topic has become more and more important due to climate change, with longer and more frequent warm periods.

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the problem of expanded maintenance in these areas where composite bridges are used. In this context, several viaducts in HSL were instrumented and modeled. The monitoring was correlated with maintenance actions carried out. The results of this work lead to bring out that it would be relevant to update the design regulations of bridges to integrate the criterion of vertical deformations under thermal gradient and so reduce the cost of maintenance in high-speed lines.

4826 14 October 2022 at 2:53 pm Tristan POUHIN Track / Bridge interaction: an experimental approach to reduce the use of bridge rail expansion devices

Bertrand AVRIL

Ballasted track (Ballasted track ) Track bridge interaction

On the HSL Sud Est Européen, bridge rail expansion devices represent 10% of the track geometry default maintenance costs for a very limited linear (less than 0.2%). To reduce maintenance costs, but also to anticipate climate change effects, we wanted to make our analysis of track bridge interaction more reliable. For this purpose, we launched a measurement campaign on 8 long-span bridges (with an expandable length of more than 90 m) over a period of more than 2 years.
These measurements allowed us to show that the daily variation of temperature can be neglected for the calculation of the stress in the rail brought by concrete and steel-concrete composite bridges. Thus, a thermal loading, considering the effects of climate change and adapted to the calculation of the track bridge interaction has been defined. A comparison of the measurements with our calculation methods will also be presented. Finally, with these results, we were able to remove 2 bridge expansion devices of 120 m expandable length. It represents a saving of 200 k€ of renewal cost and 600 k€ of maintenance cost.

4827 14 October 2022 at 2:54 pm Rui Xue A Graph-based Deep Learning Method with Causal Inferences towards Fault Diagnosis and Analysis in Rail

Guohua Li
Xiaoning Ma
Siqi Sun

In Safety security (In Safety security ) Fault diagnosis, Deep learning

Viewed as a critical task in rail, fault diagnosis involves the investigation of the cause or nature. Targeting causes and risks is vital to take fault-tolerant responses timely and appropriately to remove the adverse effects from the faulty parts. However, this cascading analysis in rail remains a challenge due to the increasing components as well as their interactions.

We propose a graph-based deep learning approach that leverages causal knowledge toward expert-level fault diagnosis. To begin with, we build a factual graph of risks, causes, and faults from reality, and mirror a counterfactual graph. Topological and contextual information is incorporated through graph-based embeddings. Then, we compute counterfactual probabilities on the counterfactual graph, the duplicated of the factual part, based on Pearl’s calculus of interventions. Finally, we estimated relationships among risks, causes, and faults through the predicted links in the graph neural network ranked by those probabilities.

A case study is applied to validate the proposed model. Tracking reports of signal and communication in rail operations from 2016 to 2018 are collected, and the graph of risks, causes, and faults is constructed. 80% of the edges of this graph are trained and the rest are removed as the testing set. The results show that considering the network representation and causal influence allows the model to outperform other approaches by at least 2%, which are aligned over 90% with decisions by rail experts in the follow-up investigation. As a result of using this method, complex interactions and beneficial information can be handled effectively, and a link between correlations and causations can be estimated, resulting in a more accurate fault diagnosis.

4828 14 October 2022 at 2:58 pm Rui Xue A Look into Big Data Application in rail with Deep Learning-based Topic Model

Dan Zou
Guohua Li

Big data management (Big data management ) Big data application, Topic model

Emerging and powerful new user-friendly analytic methods make rapidly growing data accessible and meaningful to an increasingly wider range of audiences. The rapid expansion of big data and digital techniques has made embracing these trends for rail mobility a service more than ever. Yet, despite this exciting potential, operators in some domains of railways have been much slower than other development practitioners in adopting the tools and techniques of data science. There is also a lack of commercial view to look into big data applications with available insights when previous studies tend to focus on pure literature analysis. Therefore, it is inevitable to review big data applications regarding various topics and dig deeper into the reasons behind what happened.

To better understand big data applications on a large dataset from academia to industry, we propose a novel method, termed BLooM, incorporating the topic model and deep learning algorithm. This model is applied to target topic trends and thus to develop the analytical framework for big data applications in railways. Two subsequent cases in the rail sector, one regarding academic research, and the other a survey from China railways, are applied to validate it. The results show that (1) operation and equipment are two leading areas with big data applications from academia and industry; (2) trending technologies such as edgy deep learning models have been incorporated into big data applications in rail. This proposed method allows rail policymakers lay out the future of rail by taking a comprehensive approach to big data applications.

4829 14 October 2022 at 2:59 pm Mercedes Gutiérrez Ferrándiz Drone4Rail, Harmonized methodology for drone/UAV use for bridge inspections

Salvatore LORELLI
Nazzareno LOPEZ
Andrea VECCI (RFI)

Maintenance tools, drones, etc. (Maintenance tools, drones, etc. ) Drone-inspection, Railway-Bridges

Infrastructure Managers from all over Europe have participated in the UIC-project “DRONE4RAIL – Harmonized methodology for drone / UAV use for bridge inspections”, to research the use of drone technology (UAS – Unmanned Aerial Systems) in railway bridge inspections and to standardize regulations. The paper illustrates the main results obtained by this project highlighting main benefits and limitations. The state-of-the-art of drone-technology, the national regulations of aviation-agencies and inspection-processes of the participating countries were compared and summarized. Field tests were carried out in the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and Norway on different structures (steel, masonry and reinforced concrete bridges) with different drones and camera technologies. The results of these experimental studies were included in a recommendation regarding the hardware (flight system and camera-technique) and to the requirements for data-storage and post-processing software. In addition to the technical features, safety aspects were considered, including the elaboration of a generic SORA (Specific Operational Risk Assessment), which can be used as a guideline for drone flights near railway infrastructure in Europe. After describing the benefits and limits of the current state of the technology in different countries and proposing recommendations for the use of drone-inspections in different fields of application, an outlook into future developments of the technique is given.

4830 14 October 2022 at 3:20 pm Valentina Pozzoli Seats allocation optimization for high-speed train services

Valentina Pozzoli – Modeling and Decision Optimization Project Manager
Nicolas Marcos – IT System Department for Rail Production Projet Manager
Gwendeline Desnot Hellot – OuiGo Marketing and Commercial Director
François Ramond – Autonomous Mobility Project Director
Christelle Lerin – Modeling and Decision Optimization Team Leader

New competitions (New competitions ) Seat allocation, Optimization

High speed train facilities in France are growing in terms of infrastructure, services and passengers. SNCF is the main French high-speed train operator, featuring TGV Inoui and OuiGo as the two main brands. OuiGo aims at offering a low-cost high-speed service and revolves around optimizing the costs and increasing the passengers.
High-speed services usually assign the passenger to his seat before the train departure. The choice of the seat allocation can have an impact on the quality of the train occupancy in terms of sales performance, customer satisfaction and operational preferences. OuiGo customers do not receive their assigned seat number right at the moment of reservation, but only four days prior to the train departure: this is an opportunity to perform a simultaneous allocation of all passengers right before the communication of the seat number.
In this work we present an optimization algorithm performing passengers’ allocation to seats. We show how this can improve the occupancy of the train in terms of:
– free seats, which can increase the possible sales up to the train departure
– passengers travelling together seating at adjacent seats, with a focus on passengers with young children,
– homogeneity of the occupancy rate of each coach, which improves passenger’s comfort and facilities use,
– homogeneity of the number of passengers getting on and off at each coach, which assures the respect of the train stopping time.
We present the results provided by this new approach on a set of historical data, quantifying the improvements given by the algorithm. We also discuss perspectives and challenges of the operational implementation of the algorithm.

4832 14 October 2022 at 3:43 pm Benoît Volant Life Cycle Assessment-based tool for the deployment of low emission trains Emissions to Air, Land and Water  (Emissions to Air, Land and Water  ) LCA, Low emission trains

Rail has a central role in the ecological transition as the cleanest means of heavy transport available, but diesel locomotives are still used in Europe for freight or low traffic regional lines. 65% of electrified lines (reached in Europe and Japan) seems a ceiling impossible to push because of the cost of electrification. The use of innovative technologies would allow France to follow its national low-carbon strategy of reducing transport emissions.
New energy storage alternatives such as batteries, hydrogen, biodiesel and the hybridisation of thermal trains are emerging and are a priori more respectful of the environment. Although promising it is currently difficult to assess their potential for reducing the environmental footprint. Their technical performances (efficiency, autonomy, maintainability, lifetime) also differ and are evolving. Also, the costs of development, deployment and operation need to be compared to a railway electrification or diesel trains. Although these solutions reduce emissions during operation, they generally entail environmental impacts shifting attributable to the equipment production, infrastructure construction and to the management of their end-of-life. It should be ensured that the substitution of technology is truly accompanied by an improvement in the overall environmental footprint so stakeholders can make documented decisions.
The choice to carry out a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) ensures that all the impacts induced by a change are considered. First, a bibliographic study of technologies maturity level is performed. A study on the adequate LCA method to estimate the environmental impact of trains energy storage modification for a region adapted to different maturity is then carried out. Resulting from the literature review, this research investigates the potential of a hybrid between attributional & consequential for a prospective LCA to evaluate the environmental impact of such solutions and the associated uncertainties.

4833 14 October 2022 at 3:45 pm Ouyang Guanghui Key Technologies of modular BIM construction for high-speed railway box girder fabrication field Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) BIM Construction technology, modular

BIM, cloud platform and other technologies are applied to the construction of high-speed railway box girder field.
By establishing the standard system of beam field construction, BIM component model library of beam field
and BIM integrated management platform of beam field construction, the parameterized automatic design of beamfield and component BIM model and the automatic synchronization of BIM model and field construction dataare realized, and finally the data standardization management of construction process is carried out It realizes the design and construction guidance of the beam field, ensures the construction period of the project and the cost of the whole field construction, and is applicable to all the railway box girder fabrication fields.

4835 14 October 2022 at 4:01 pm Fabio Sgroi ITALO Climate Risk Assessment

Pietro Andreotti – Willis Tower Watson

Adaptation of the railway to future climate conditions (Adaptation of the railway to future climate conditions ) Climate risk, Transition

With the notable increase in frequency and severity of extreme weather events, there is growing public expectation for action around climate. Climate risk is now considered as a financial risk, and both consumers and investors are pressing organizations to disclose how they will be impacted by climate change.

Italo Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori (‘Italo’) proactively started to develop a comprehensive analysis with the support of Willis Tower Watson (‘WTW’), aimed to identify, prioritize, and report their main climate risks and opportunities. The scenarios utilized in the study are based on the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions concentration pathways designed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5/AR6 Reports), as well as additional resources.

In close alignment to requirements of the Task Force for Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), the analysis is structured as follows:

A first workstream assessed the Physical Climate Risks of Italo’s portfolio of assets (owned and not owned) based on current conditions as well as future climate change impact projections, as a function of different time horizons and climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways – RCP). The analysis focused on the physical climate risk exposures of assets and railway infrastructure utilized by Italo, and the physical risks identified covered both acute (event-driven) and chronic risks (longer-term shifts in climate patterns).

The second workstream is a Transition risks & opportunities assessment, aimed to identify and articulate Italo’s transition risks and opportunities associated with a stringent transition scenario to a low carbon economy (i.e., a world where we limit temperature rise to either 1.5°C or 2°C) and a 2030-time horizon. Aligned to the TCFD, the transition analysis focuses on four main thematic areas: policy, technology, market, reputation.

Moreover, Italo engaged WTW to assess and enhance their current alignment to the TCFD recommendations

4836 14 October 2022 at 4:09 pm Alexis de Pommerol The efficiency of financing schemes involving Public and Private Partners for the delivery of long-term performance on Rail and High-Speed projects Funding schemes (Funding schemes ) PPP, Long term Performance

In the 2000s the French administration asked SNCF Réseau (French Rail Infrastructure Manager) to simultaneously launch the design and construction of three new High-Speed Lines, the design and construction of a mixed freight and High-Speed Line and to finalize the nationwide implementation of the GSMR system. Facing both huge technical and financial challenges, SNCF Réseau decided to use Private Financing schemes for three of the four lines and for the GSMR system. Four PPP contracts were signed in 2010-2012 for 15 up to 50 years. In 2017, all projects had been successfully delivered on time or ahead of schedule.
After several years of operation, the success of the delivery is now confirmed by the successes of the operational performances of these four new assets. By assigning design, construction and maintenance of the infrastructure to a single entity and by requesting high level performances over the long time, SNCF Réseau has led industrial players to challenge life cycle cost and to implement innovations and intelligent systems for the benefits of all parties.
In 2010, the French Government passed the Grand Paris Act, establishing Société du Grand Paris in charge of financing, designing, building, testing and commissioning a new fully automated transit network of 200 km, 90% underground, and 68 new stations around the French Capital. Combining fiscal resources and an optimized 100% Green Bond Strategy, Société du Grand Paris has already secured 70% of the financing of the €36bn project enabling its full delivery by 2030. Continuous discussions with local entities, industry and future operators led to the development and implementation of innovating processes for construction and operation of the system, reducing its carbon footprint and securing its long term performance.

4839 14 October 2022 at 4:28 pm ali hassan azizi High speed stations – new vision in the era of challenging changes Architectural design and placemaking (Architectural design and placemaking ) gares, railway station

Avec l’avènement de la grande vitesse au Maroc, la conception des gares a évolué sur différents aspects : accessibilité, conception et design, services, commodités, etc… Les nouvelles gares LGV ont été conçues puis construites en prenant en compte ces nouveaux besoins dont certains sont apparus avec l’avènement de la grande vitesse.
Nous allons présenter un aperçu de ces gares et de leur adaptation à la grande vitesse, notamment en terme de dimensionnement, d’intégration dans leurs environnements immédiats, de services aux voyageurs, d’espaces commerciaux, d’accessibilité et d’intermodalité. Nous essayerons également d’amener des pistes de réflexions à prendre en compte dans la conception des futures gares grande vitesse.

4840 14 October 2022 at 4:28 pm Lovan Pushparatnam Why data is so important for high-speed rail asset management Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Asset Management, Data

Lifecycle planning is a key concept in asset management and data provides a fundamental resource for managing future developments. 80% of CO2 emissions generated by an asset are determined by the choices made at the infrastructure design phase.

In order to maximise infrastructure viability over time each component of a project must be reviewed in detail. Data is vital to this process because it provides the opportunity to model the entire life cycle of the asset. The flow of data through all information systems contributes to making high-speed rail infrastructure smarter, more efficient and, above all, less environmentally impactful.

There is a need to accurately model the degradation of assets over their lifetime. Much of today’s railway infrastructure consists of legacy equipment providing little or no diagnostic data. Regular on-site inspections are therefore needed to keep infrastructure in a state of good repair. This approach can be dramatically improved through remote monitoring and management as well as data gathered by drones which can help in inspections and safety audits as well as provide detailed 3D mapping of the infrastructure.

Lessons learnt from 50% of the world’s high-speed rail projects that SYSTRA has been involved in mean that we are uniquely positioned with both the data analytics skills and the experience of high-speed rail maintenance engineering required. The Internet of Things will simplify data collection, but specifying and amassing information is only the first step. Once collected, the right data must be properly analysed and then acted upon intelligently to inform decision-making and achieve business objectives.

In this paper we will highlight, via a case-study, our recommendations for asset management: (i) Getting to know the benefits & the value of the data provided by systems, (ii) Knowing how to analyse & use data to optimise maintenance, (iii) Designing/adapting systems to harness the potential of data

4842 14 October 2022 at 4:32 pm Francesca Ciuffini From social utility to business opportunity: IM’s train path catalogue and alternative routes project to improve connectivity of the HS system

P. Cancellara, S. Giulianelli, R. Lancia, E. Guerrera, G. R. Sitongia

Network planning (Network planning ) social utility, modal shift

More than a decade of high-speed mobility in Italy has led to a revolution for the national long-distance mobility. Along the high-speed (HS) axis, Italy’s boot-shaped peninsula was shortened and people’s leisure time extended. Roundtrip connections between the most distant Italian cities, once unthinkable by train, are now possible. The country’s geography and people’s habits have been changed after the introduction of the HS services.
The benefits of the HS system, as the result of increasing the performance of the service (speed and frequencies), have not only influenced the high speed axis but also the minor urban centres of the catchment areas thanks to the connections with regional services.
However, the rising of HS traffic led to the congestion of the busiest sections of the lines and of the terminus stations within nodes, thus threatening the reliability of the system.
In the last years, the market moved towards a “two players” competition, mostly on frequency and fares, with a product marketing mix that remained the same and a concentration of traffic along the most profitable routes and the central stations.
In this paper we present an analysis of the connectivity between different origins and destinations along the HS axis, compared with the overall mobility demand data.
In this scenario, the Infrastructure Manager could play an active role, helping to reduce the highlighted issues of the system by arranging a high-speed “Train-Path Catalogue”. A catalogue includes a set of predefined train paths designed by IM to be allocated in a fair and non-discriminatory way that will enable an optimization of the transport plan based on the passengers’ needs. The project of alternative routes within the nodes is also described in this paper, whose aim is to optimize the transport plan and enhance the social utility of the system.
Lastly, we report a critical reasoning on possible future regulations that could support the HS Train-Path Catalogue creation and bring

4843 14 October 2022 at 4:36 pm Vanessa Pérez Miranda Modus Scenarios for the Future of Multimodal (Air plus Rail) Transport Modal complementarity (Modal complementarity ) air plus rail, intermodal transport

The need for a seamless and hassle-free passenger journey, increasing environmental awareness, regulatory measures, and capacity shortages across different modes make the evolution of European passenger demand for mobility a significant challenge to predict, as well as its potential impact on the European transport system.
The overall performance of the (future) European transport system will depend on alignment and optimisation of multimodal transport, needing to provide a seamless journey for passengers while mitigating (air) capacity constraints.
The four scenarios developed in the Modus project aim at exploring how air traffic management (ATM) and air transport can better contribute to improving passengers’ multimodal journeys, especially regarding combined air plus rail journeys, at the same time exploring the impact on performance of the overall transport system. Four scenarios are derived from European high-level mobility objectives and existing scenario studies, as well as work conducted within the Modus project. Each scenario focuses on particular aspects that are envisaged for the future, having the potential to significantly change the transport system: (1) pre-pandemic recovery (baseline); (2) European short-haul shift; (3) growth with strong technological support; and, (4) decentralised, remote and digital.


4845 14 October 2022 at 5:12 pm Philippe POULIGNY HSL Switch and Crossings. Last technological developments, experiments and feedbacks

Bertrand AVRIL

Ballasted track (Ballasted track ) Switch and Crossing, Technological Developments

Since the first high-speed line in France, more than 40 years ago, until today, switches and level crossings have regularly evolved to adapt to increasing of speed, feedback from the maintainer , technical developments and increasing comfort and safety requirements.
However, switches and crossings are such a specific point of the track,
– in terms of safety (moving parts, rails weakened by machining and drilling, etc.),
– in terms of railway dynamics (change of track or carrier rail, breach crossing, etc.),
– and of course, in terms of complexity due to the superposition of mechanical, electrical and even hydraulic component

In this context, the presentation will show a brief history of the main developments in switches and crossings on the French LGV network and the origin of the technological or economic choices that have been made, then will dwell on the description of the latest technical developments (the integrated actuation, hydraulic actuation, etc.), on-track testing of prototypes.
The technical and economic impact of these developments with regard to maintenance will also be presented.

4847 14 October 2022 at 5:25 pm Flavien Viguier 3D data an essential tool for asset management

Landes Bruno
Meneses Alexis
Jaspart Benoit

Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) 3D Digital twin, Cloud development

Since the beginning of 2010, SNCF Réseau has been deploying 3D measurement tools and methods to optimize knowledge of its assets. Based on its experience, the company decided to deploy three measurement trains equipped with 3D LiDAR systems in 2018. Thus, 180,000 km of infrastructure are measured annually, making it possible to build a digital twin of the installations. Although 3D measurement represents the first step towards optimizing asset knowledge, the added value created by point clouds remains low, which is why an ambitious software development program has been launched. The aim of this program is to transform raw data into structured data and then into business knowledge that can be used by the asset manager to optimize his maintenance decision. In this article we will present the work done to automatically produce 3D point clouds, analyze ballast profiles, measure catenary geometry, study vegetation risk or automatically detect objects in point clouds to help create BIM models. The contribution of cloud development tools and methods will also be described in order to show how the industrialization of online and shared IT tools can represent a performance lever for infrastructure managers.

4849 14 October 2022 at 5:51 pm NAOUFAL ABDALLAH A modelling approach to asset degradation prediction

Amira YOUSSEF, lead data scientist

Network digitizing (Network digitizing ) Time-to-event models, Asset management

To optimize SNCF Réseau asset management methods and procedures, an artificial intelligence program has been built. The Asset degradation Prediction project consists in setting up degradation laws for some railway assets. The objective is to establish new maintenance plans and to optimize economical trajectories for the renewal of the railway network.
The approach is based on a modeling of the time taken by a piece of equipment, or a population of equipment, have suffered from a given phenomenon. This phenomenon is generally linked to the end of life of the asset or its degradation.
SNCF RESEAU’s engineering teams have been able to build a few statistical and Machine Learning models on all the engineering structures off all the network. With the maintainers and experts, we defined criteria to obtain the “near failure” times of the studied structures.
Our study is based on 5 scenarios of “point of no return” of the performance of the structures:
1. Reconstruction of the structure
2. Recommendation of works on the structure
3. Putting the structure under deceleration
4. Increase of the inspection effort on the structure
5. Putting the structure under surveillance.
For each of these scenarios, the maintainer has a time remaining for each asset before reaching the ”failure”. He will therefore intervene according to this deadline.
Therefore, we have set up a model of the expected replacement time on some types of ties. Depending on some characteristics (location, type of rail, type of ties, …), we were able to estimate the time it would take before starting renewal operations.
These types of analyses allow us to optimize the renewal and maintenance policy of our infrastructure. This allows us to avoid over- or underestimating the performance of an asset.


Ali Fırat ÇABALAR, Nurullah AKBULUT

Land use(Land use) cut-cover tunnel, urban transportation

In Gaziantep, Turkey’s 9th largest city and an important production and trade city of the region, the contribution of the 4-line GAZİRAY project, including 2 HST and 2 Suburban trains, built by TCDD in the city, to urban life, urban sustainability and transportation services has been examined. The project was built between the two large organized industrial zones of Gaziantep as 25.40 km and 16 stations, and 4.84 km of it was passed underground by cut-cover tunnel method.
With the integration of the newly built rail system line into urban passenger transportation, it is aimed to reduce fossil fuel consumption and carbon emissions. In addition, with the underground installation of the railway line, which is currently on the ground, lands for recreation and green space were left to the city life, the continuity of the city was ensured and the train noise was removed from the city life.
Approximately 100,000 m² of new area on a closed section of 3700 meters in the Cut-Cover tunnel has been gained in the central areas of the city. 4 stations were built in the tunnel and transportation services were maintained as both environmental, functional and sustainable. 7845 piles and 3289 prestressed reinforced concrete beams were used in the tunnel and it was ensured that no existing structures around the tunnel were damaged.
In this article, the benefits of GAZİRAY summarized above are examined in detail and construction methods are described in order to shed light on future similar studies and projects.

4853 14 October 2022 at 6:22 pm Daniele Regazzi Development of a digital twin to predict in service wheel behaviour

Steven Cervello
Stefano Cantini

Operational performance (Operational performance ) digital twin, wheel lifetime prediction

The design of a railway wheel is nowadays performed verifying the fatigue resistance of the web against loads coming from service, while the steel grade is chosen, mainly based on the return of experience of the operator.
The duration of the wheel has a great impact on the vehicle TLCC and is influenced by the combination of wear rate, surface and subsurface RCF (ratcheting, spalling or shelling) derived from the wheel-rail interaction.
The present paper describes the development of an innovative tool aimed at evaluating the wheel wear rate and crack propagation probability from sub-surface defects, depending on the wheel geometry and steel grade, the vehicle typology and the characteristics of the track in terms of curve radius distribution.
The tool was built starting from the multi-body simulation of four different vehicles, covering the main railway sectors (high-speed, passenger, locomotive and freight), running on lines representative of the service; the output of the simulations, as time histories of the forces at the wheel to rail contact, defines the input for the following calculations of the wear and RCF indexes, for each point of the rolling profile. The two ER8 and ERS8 steel grades, according to EN13262:2020, were considered at present in the research; an experimental campaign was carried out on both materials in order to define the correct parameters for calibrating the wear and fatigue behaviour of the model. Finally, the developed tool was validated through dedicated full-scale tests.
Final scope of the research is to give the designer a simple tool representing the digital twin of the wheel, in order to choose the best steel grade and the correct material cleanliness requirements to maximize the life of the wheel, knowing in advance the vehicle characteristics and the service condition.

4854 14 October 2022 at 6:23 pm Iñigo Aguas Ardaiz Are independent EU regulatory bodies made out of the same material? A comparison study between the France (ART) and Spain (CNMC) Rail governance and regulation (Rail governance and regulation ) Regulatory Body, Liberalization of HSR network

The first directive (91/440/EC) was approved in 1991. It led to the implementation of the European railway network by liberalizing the railway transport market. Later the first railway package, which includes the Directive 2001/14/EC, guided the real network development. It requires that each European Union state member to establish a regulatory body (RB), independent of its stakeholders. Article 30 of Directive 2001/14/EC claims that the purpose of such RB is to clarify the relationship between market actors: Infrastructure managers (IM), railway users (RU) and others institutional agencies.

This research focuses on the cases of France and Spain, where the liberalization process is already in progress for the High Speed Railway (HSR) network. French and Spanish HSR networks are comparable in terms of structure (star centered on the capital) and length (2734 and 4028 km respectively). These two countries chose the creation of a new independent agency as RB (ART in France and CNMC in Spain). Both RBs experienced a simultaneous evolution over the last 20 years as well as their attributions. We want to study these changes in order to understand whether they led to new skills, making them more effective or, conversely, whether RBs did lost regulatory ability. Specifically, we aim to explore two opposite scenarios: (i) either the RB’s actions were a key factor in the liberalization of HSR network or (ii) insufficient to let new entrants pass over the barriers to entry. Furthermore, it is interesting to compare the French system, where any RU can request for paths, and the Spanish one, where the IM allocates predefined packages of paths.

To sum up, we study the different mechanisms that RBs are able to implement in the HSR market by comparing France and Spain. Additionally, we propose a strategy intended to avoid each RU to face the barriers for stakeholder entry in a reliable market, based on RB regulatory power.

4855 14 October 2022 at 8:10 pm ABDULLAH MURAT ESER Environmental and Economical Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions of High – Speed Trains in Türkiye

Zeynep ATAK

Emissions to air, land and water (Emissions to air, land and water ) sustainability, greenhouse gases

Sustainabile mobility is an actual concept which is related to transportation. In the scope of transport, this concept can be handled in two parts as construction and operation phases. In this paper, greenhouse gas (CO2,CH4 and N2O) emissions which is one of the most important environmental effect observed in transportation during operational phase, are considered. Greenhouse gas emissions of train, car, bus and air transport can be determined both environmetally and economically. While, in environmental terms, amount of greenhouse gas emissions are measured with the unit of tonne CO2 (tCO2), the economical externalities of rail, road or air transport vehicles can be determined in terms of the economical benefits. The calculation to be made to advance the investigation are based on passenger forecasts (assuming % 60 diverted traffic) between 2023 – 2042 and Turkey’s 1.213 km high-speed rail lines in operation. According to passenger forecasts the passanger – km (pkm) data are calculated and the result of these calculations are necessary for calculating both amount of greenhouse gas emissions and economic externalities. Since high – speed trains do not have direct greenhouse gas emissions, in calculations, the emissions of the vehicles in the other modes are considered as the source of environmental impacts. As a result, the effects of high-speed train use in terms of both direct carbon emissions and economic externalities are illustrated. Thus, it is determined to what extent the use of high – speed trains reduces the negative effects on the environment.

General topic: Sustainable Mobility
Main sub – topic: Mitigation for Social and Environmental impacts during operational phase
Detailed sub – topic: Emissions to air, land and water

4857 14 October 2022 at 8:50 pm Fabian Wenner High Speed Rail as Urban Generator? Impact Model and Empirical Findings

Johannes Moser
Angelika Münter
Alain Thierstein
Manuel Weiß

Land use(Land use) Impact Model, Urban Development

The implementation of High-Speed Rail (HSR) services at existing stations and particularly the construction of entirely new HSR stations on greenfield sites is often accompanied by expectations for regional and local urban and economic development, especially in the immediate vicinity of such stations. Accessibility improvements are assumed to increase locational attractiveness for households and companies, motivating municipal decision-makers to allocate land for urban development projects. However, most empirical studies so far raise doubts about automatic effects. Scientific analyses so far predominantly focus on one case study of a single station or line –comparative, international analyses are still rare, despite the high number of lines constructed in the last decades in various countries.
The aim of this presentation is twofold. Firstly, it canvasses an impact model for local development around High-Speed Rail stations, developed as part of an ongoing major research project of High-Speed Rail effects in the context of the knowledge economy in Germany. Secondly, it presents the results of an analysis of 232 stations in 11 countries in Europe between 1981 and today to examine how land uses in the surroundings of High-Speed Rail stations have changed before and after construction, by evaluating CORINE land cover data. The findings highlight the importance of local influencing factors, showing that land use changes are more likely when stations are close to, but not immersed by the existing urban fabric, and well connected by complementary regional and local public transport. A location within a catchment area of a metropolitan centre also increases development potential. At the same time, a substantial share of the stations, particularly such in peripheral locations outside of metropolitan regions, show almost no development effects at all.

4858 14 October 2022 at 9:37 pm Le Hung Nguyen Carbon impact of reinforcement solutions for structures affected by delayed ettringite formation

Jean Marie BRITO

Accessible and sustainable low-carbon infrastructure by design (Accessible and sustainable low-carbon infrastructure by design ) carbon impact, reinforcement

Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) in concrete, also called internal sulfate attack, have been known for more than twenty years in France. This phenomenon occurs particularly in mass concrete structure where its early age temperature is highly elevated. Bridge structures which were built before the discovery of this sulfate attack have high chance to be affected by the DEF. These structures need to be reinforced to stop the concrete expansion, its deterioration and to maintain the structure bearing capacity. In this publication, a reinforcement of a bridge piers affected the DEF is presented. The DEF affection was early detected in the structures, which allowed a preventive reinforcement solution. A waterproofing system consisted of epoxy and polyurethane was used on the entire perimeter of the piers. Waterproofing effect is expected to inhibit the chemical reaction that creates the DEF expansion and deterioration in concrete. In parallel, the carbon impact analysis of the preventive reinforcement is carried out in comparison to some repair solutions on damaged structures by DEF. The results show a lower carbon impact of the proposed reinforcement than other solutions. The preventive solution helps also to avoid the further cost of an important repair of damaged structures by DEF when the pathology is lately diagnosed. This study confirms the importance of the inspection schedule on bridges which allow to detect any deterioration of the concrete structure.

4859 15 October 2022 at 6:55 am Joerg Ostwald The new normal: More leisure traffic by rail also thanks to high speed rail New trends, mobility changes (New trends, mobility changes ) Leisure traffic, New transalpine rail link

Switzerland is a small country: the longest extensions are 220 kilometers north-south and 348 kilometers west-east. Nevertheless, High Speed Rail also has a justification in Switzerland. For between the densely populated plain in the central Mittelland and the Italian-speaking Ticino lies the main ridge of the Alps. It has been broken through with two high-speed rail lines, the Lötschberg and Gotthard base tunnels. With the opening of the Ceneri Base Tunnel in 2020, the main elements were almost completed. After the opening of the tunnels, it quickly became clear how important they were not only for their original purpose, freight transport, but also quickly became of existential importance for passenger transport. Due to the drastically shortened travel times, new commuter flows are developing over previously impossible distances. Since the destinations are also attractive tourist areas, the more attractive connections also lead to a significant increase in leisure traffic.
With the international travel restrictions imposed by Covid-19, there was also a return to tourism at home in Switzerland. The railways were able to profit enormously from this, also thanks to the attractive high-speed connections to the more distant tourist areas, and the share of leisure traffic in passenger traffic has risen sharply. This was and is even more significant as commuter traffic by rail, which is particularly pronounced in Switzerland, has declined, because of the Covid 19-related changes in travel behaviour.
The presentation shows how much the share of leisure traffic has changed, also thanks to high-speed rail, and what measures the Swiss Federal Railways SBB have taken operationally and commercially to respond to this in the best possible way. The presentation also highlights the current general development of rail tourism in Switzerland and how new approaches are being taken to further strengthen it. This part of the presentation provides a link to the UIC TopRail programme

4861 15 October 2022 at 8:45 am Juliusz Sołkowski Creep behavior of the CWR track at a tunnel entrance Ballasted track (Ballasted track ) CWR track, Creep

The CWR track is a commonly used track structure especially for high speed lines. At the entrance of a tunnel we can observe two dominating actions: the thermal load and the vertical load due to structural track non-uniformity. The first one results from the temperature variation along the track, and the latter one is related to the vertical stiffness variation between the track structures (ballasted and slab structures), which is usually accompanied by the differences in track bedding.
The aim of the article is to study so-called creep phenomenon in the track using a nonlinear model of longitudinal resistance of the track. This model, which has been validated on the basis of author’s own research and existing experimental data, comprises the energy dissipation phenomenon. The process of loading-unloading is discussed in the context of vertical load which may occur as a result of the mentioned stiffness variation. To describe this action a wave approach is adopted including the damping and mass variation of the connected tracks.
The load is applied in the form of a multiple thermal rail temperature gradient which results in longitudinal rail displacement having its maximum at the tunnel entrance. During the unloading process (e.g. a reverse temperature gradient) some plastic rail displacements occur. They interfere with the bending waves which occur at the transition between ballasted and slab tracks.
To solve the outlined problem, both analytical and numerical models are used. The stresses and displacements of the rails are calculated in dependence on the energy dissipation rate and the bending wave characteristics of the analyzed track structures. In result of the modelling, the process of increased track degradation at the transition located at the tunnel entrance is described. In conclusion of the article the practical consequences of the findings are given and the envisaged future research is outlined.

4863 15 October 2022 at 8:56 am Michael Beswick Beswick Resilient River Landscapes (HS2) – River Cole realignment: Mitigating climate change through landscape design Ecology and Ecosystems for flora & fauna (Ecology and Ecosystems for flora & fauna ) Environment, Climate Change

High Speed Two (HS2) is the UK Government’s proposal for a new, high-speed railway corridor spanning the length of the UK.
The River Cole is located within the southernmost section of the Delta Junction, a triangular section of High Speed Two (HS2) Phase One, where the route curves west towards Birmingham and runs north towards Crewe. In order to accommodate the HS2 route the River Cole will be realigned.
Referencing the HS2 key design principles of Conserve, Enhance, Restore and Transform this paper considers the effectiveness of the project specific design guidance and industry-wide best practice in delivering the River Cole realignment, whilst maintaining and ultimately improving a holistic river environment:

Conservation of existing elements within the landscape means preserving the environment and landscape character including the local heritage site at Coleshill Manor;
Landscape Enhancement will require integrating the displaced river into the existing landscape through designing new bank shapes, contouring and meanders to create a diverse natural river channel over time;
Restoring the landscape during and after the construction phase, then emphasising its unique character, is key. The realignment of the river will allow new shallows, riffles and pools to be created. Reconnecting footpaths along the river will be an added benefit for the local community.
Transformation of the river landscape requires the development of a robust and species rich wetland ecology around the river.
The design process for the displaced river is driven by habitat creation, improved biodiversity and landscape enhancement realised though the collaboration of several disciplines aimed at climate resilience and a richer tapestry of life through biodiversity.
This paper concludes how these principles have been implemented in the design and whether the results can be deemed best practice for similar projects on river restoration and riparian enhancement.

4864 15 October 2022 at 9:43 am Florian Einböck Towards a digital future with Frauscher Connect Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) (Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) ) Train detection, Safety & Security

For 35 years, Frauscher Sensor Technology has forged new and innovative paths in the global railway industry. By offering customised solutions, it has become synonymous for innovative axle counters and wheel sensors enabling efficient railway operations – regardless of railway segment, site of operation or prevailing local conditions. With its solutions, Frauscher makes it possible to step into a digital future of rail operations, setting new benchmarks in the signalling industry.

Evolution of Frauscher products
Frauscher set itself the goal of driving forward the digitisation of railway operations at an early stage, witnessed by the deep anchoring of this concept in its corporate strategy. In the roadmap “Digitalisation 2020” rolled out in 2012, an axle counter for train detection with a network-capable (IP based) interface was already defined. As a result of these developments, with FadC®, Frauscher now carries an axle counter that in terms of functionality, is one of the most powerful in the world.

Balancing safety and security
The digital transformation of railroad operations is advancing at a rapid pace, including continuously changing software and diagnostic protocols and the growing importance of cyber security. This entails the necessity to ensure consistent safety, while guaranteeing flexibility on the communication side by separating systems or objects such as axle counting and interfaces.

Frauscher Connect enables the connectivity to vital and non-vital applications while meeting all safety and security requirements – far beyond previous boundaries. As a common communication interface for all Frauscher products, it enables data and information to be transmitted via cat. 3 networks (according to EN 50159) to both interlockings and customer diagnostic systems (OPC-UA transmission). Frauscher Connect provides all known software protocols, such as EULYNX, Frauscher Safe Ethernet FSE), as well as various customised protocols.

4866 15 October 2022 at 9:49 am Rishabh Gautam Selection of Communication Backbone for RRTS – LTE

o Author 1: Mr. Vinay Kumar Singh, Managing Director/NCRTC
o Author 2: Mr. Navneet Kaushik, Director Systems and Operations/NCRTC
o Author 3: Mr. Rishabh Gautam, Senior Deputy General/S&T/NCRTC

Telecommunications (Telecommunications ) LTE for Railways, Mission Critical Communication

The objective of this paper is to elaborate why LTE is the best suitable wireless communication medium for NCRTC RRTS Projects keeping the technical factors, availability of resources and expertise in mind.
The paper also highlights the technical and bureaucratic challenges faced during the execution of establishing India’s first Mission Critical LTE Network.
The paper describes and evaluates all the options available, namely packet switched GSM-R (GPRS), TETRA, Wi-Fi in unlicensed ISM Bands and LTE as a replacement for circuit switched GSM-R, which is used world over in ERTMS systems for signalling and communication and in India only for voice communication purposes.
The paper also elaborates upon the challenges faced and lessons learnt while executing the project. A section is dedicated to interference mitigation measures for establishing a stable and secure LTE network for safety critical railway operations.
There is detailed description of need of interoperability of the communication backbone with future NCRTC corridors and the expansion of the existing LTE Evolved Packet Core to future corridors.

4868 15 October 2022 at 10:06 am Navneet Kaushik Implementation of Hybrid ERTMS Hybrid-Level 3 concept by NCRTC

• Conceived of the presented idea: Navneet Kaushik, Manvendra Singh
• Study conception and design: Navneet Kaushik, Manvendra Singh, Naveen Pandey
• Draft paper preparation: Navneet Kaushik, Manvendra Singh, Naveen Pandey

Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) (Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) ) Hybrid level 3, Capacity Expansion

Rapid Regional Transport System (RRTS) is improving the quality of life of people by providing equitable, fast, reliable, safe, comfortable, efficient and sustainable mobility solutions, enabling the economic development of the National Capital Region (NCR). RRTS will provide reliable, high frequency, point to point regional travel at high speed along a dedicated pathway. RRTS caters to passengers looking to travel relatively longer distances with fewer stops and at higher design speed, i.e., 180 Km/hr.
Signalling system is one of the critical parts of the construction of RRTS project. ETCS Hybrid Level 3 provides economically viable upgradation of ETCS Level 2 for realization of enhanced capacity and reduced headway. The Hybrid Level 3 concept utilizes on-board train position information and trackside train detection as provided in ETCS level 2, train integrity information provided by modern rolling stock having availability of such feature.
The Hybrid Level 3, fixed block section is achieved through dividing into several virtual section configurations available through Radio Block Center (RBC) in place of using track side detection devices, e.g., axle counters, bringing performance near to the moving block. For leveraging the benefits of hybrid Level 3, optimum choice of virtual section length for a given speed and, in turn, communication latency, reliable guaranteed communication between the on-board and trackside systems at all times are critical challenges for implementation of the projects.
The economic benefits for capacity enhancement and reduced headway are achieved through implementation of hybrid level 3, where no change in onboard or interlocking is required. The universal standards and specifications allow vendor independence and greatly benefits expansion of projects and capacity enhancement. The reduced headway achievement makes the hybrid level 3 suitable for metro transport environment for intracity travels.

4870 15 October 2022 at 11:56 am Antonio Tresca The Italian High Speed Service Model on Accessibility Accessibility, design and comfort (Accessibility, design and comfort ) Accessibility, Frecciarossa

Frecciarossa is the high speed top brand of Trenitalia services and the high standards of assistance services are assured thanks to quality procedures with monitoring of the performances and to trained and professional staff dedicated to answer to customer’s needs.
Fully compliance to the EU PRR rules is the main stream for the assistance to customers, with particular care for PRMs and customers with disabilities. In this paper we present the Frecciarossa model for PRM caring and accessibility.

4872 15 October 2022 at 12:58 pm Lorenzo Vannacci The accessibility impact of High Speed Rail in Italy: a user-based approach

Mario Tartaglia
Martina Farsi

Wider socio-economical impacts (Wider socio-economical impacts ) accessibility, user-based

The primary direct change caused by a High Speed Rail network is the shortening of travel times and the relative impact on territorial accessibility. This produces other second-order effects such as shifts of transport demand from other transport modes to the rail. This changes generate other wider effects affecting several socioeconomic and environmental aspects such as energy use, environmental structure, tourism, social dynamics, human health, safety, general economy, business clustering, labour productivity, land use, real estate, transport systems resilience, technology development, innovation, policies. Accessibility indicators are differently specified according to their focusing on infrastructure, utilities, location, or even people, but they are usually based on travel times between geographic locations. . Although in the continuous transport systems, such as road networks, travel times are highly significant for depicting accessibility, that is not true for the scheduled systems like the collective ones, e.g. bus, rail, air, and maritime modes. Several studies have been dedicated to the analysis of accessibility changes produced by the Italian High Speed Rail focusing on travel time rather than on the user travel time including access and waiting times. In this paper, an analysis of the accessibility impact of High Speed Rail in Italy is presented, focusing a user-based approach. Accessibility indicators are therefore set up taking into account both rail service timetables and accessibility levels from the land to rail stations, that are the actual access points to the transport system for users. The results of such user-based analysis are compared to the simple service travel time approach in the order to estimate the differences and highlight the methodological dissimilarity. Moreover the analysis consider the wider impacts on the socio economic opportunities and on population affected by the new HSR services.

4873 15 October 2022 at 1:01 pm Roumen Markov High-speed railway corridor Athens-Thessaloniki-Sofia-Bucharest Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) new high-speed rail line, projects

A high-speed train has been in operation between Athens and Thessaloniki for the last several months.
In recent years there are no passenger trains between Bulgaria and Greece, and between Sofia and Bucharest the journey takes 9 hours and 50 minutes and is not the preferred way of connecting the two capitals.
Large Infrastructure Projects is infrastructure developer and created two high-speed railway lines to connect Greece, Bulgaria and Romania with modern ecological transport as follows:
1. Sofia-Thessaloniki is a double-track railway for mixed movement of passenger trains at 280 km/h and for freight trains at 160 km/h. The length of the new railway in the Bulgarian section is 192,168 km and in Greece-79,430 km. The high-speed train journey between the two cities will be 1 hour and 31 minutes.
2. Sofia–Ruse/Bucharest with a branch to Varna is a double-track railway for movement of passenger and light freight trains with speed up to 300 km/h. Along with the main aim for connection between the three countries, the line will ensure connectivity of the regions in Northern Bulgaria with the capital and between them. The travel time between Sofia and Bucharest will be 2 hours and 21 minutes.
A new combined rail and road bridge to cross the Danube River is part of the project.

Activities until now:
-Passenger and freight marketing research
-Route design, incl. joint route of Sofia–Thessaloniki HSR and of Struma motorway in Lot 3.2 and the new Giurgiu–Ruse bridge.
-Compliance with geology and hydrogeology, hydrology, sensitive places related to ecology, biodiversity, archeology and other engineering infrastructure
-Rolling Stock Survey
-Train movements and timetables
-Preliminary cost-benefit analysis
The two new railway lines will be built and long-term maintained through PPP. The main part of the financing will be the responsibility of the private partner.

4874 15 October 2022 at 1:19 pm Joerg Ostwald CX and high speed: What does high speed do to the customer experience?

UIC Working Group Customer Experience Plattform (CEMP)
The author is chairman of this working group.

Competition on service quality customer experience (Competition on service quality customer experience ) Customer Experience, Case study

High speed rail significantly reduces travel times and thus improves the position of rail in competition with cars, long-distance buses and planes. In addition, high speed trains often offer more comfort and are more attractive to customers than conventional rolling stock. Stations along high-speed rail routes are often newly built or renovated and, together with the usually newer high-speed trains, offer a travel experience that is often completely new and even surprising for first-time users. With high speed, depending on the booking class, it is possible to transfer the comfort of a flight, which is still appreciated by many customers, to a rail journey. And this along the entire customer journey, from booking to arrival at the destination. Together with the speed factor, high speed can then often and increasingly convince car drivers and airline customers to choose the climate-friendly railway as their mode of transport.
The presentation will highlight the special characteristics and requirements of the customer experience in the area of high-speed transport and differences to other parts of rail transport. Using a practical example in Spain, the “Basque Y”, which is due to open in a few years, will be used to show the special requirements in terms of the travel experience that will arise during the transformation from a conventional Basque regional transport network to a high-speed network. This particularly interesting case study has been analyzed in the UIC Customer Experience Management Platform Working Group (CEMP) through a case study embedded in a comprehensive benchmark analysis of different aspects of CX in the cooperating railways. This will also be reported on in the presentation.

4876 15 October 2022 at 3:17 pm Oliviero Baccelli Strategic Responses to COVID 19 by railway companies operating high speed services to touristic destinations in major European markets

Mario Tartaglia and Andrea Minuto Rizzo

Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  (Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  ) Touristic destinations, New strategies

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on numerous industries across the word. One of the worst affected has been the high-speed services in Europe, which experienced dramatic drops in demand due to travel restrictions. High Speed Rail Services to touristic destinations outside functional urban areas. at EU level have suffered the most out of all HSR services, due to long periods of lockdowns and to retrenchment and exit strategies implemented by most of HSR operators. A FUA is composed of a ‘city’ and its surrounding, less densely populated local units that are part of the city’s labour market, therefore in the paper are considered touristic destinations with less than 250.000 inhabitants.
This paper aims to explore how these operators responded to pandemic, by analyzing the strategies implemented between March 2020 and end of September 2022 in the touristic destinations outside functional urban areas at Eu level. The paper considers EU countries with HSR services and involves the categorization of these new items to six main strategies: 1) Retrenchment (e.g. reducing capacity), 2) persevering (e.g. Increased funding – government and private or introducing travel incentives), 3) innovating (M&A, JVs and partnerships; marketing efforts; new revenue streams from ancillary services), 4) exit (e.g. cutting unprofitable routes/operations; focus on core strengths/markets), relaunch (e.g. resuming or relaunch new service international flights) and new brand (e.g. launch of same type of services or new services under a new brand).
The patterns of adoption of the strategic responses over time are presented, along with the most commons measures cited in Annual Reports or Industrial Strategy Reports (2020-2022) within each category.
The paper underlines the importance of readiness, adaptability and flexibility in a constantly evolving and unpredictable landscape.

4879 15 October 2022 at 4:30 pm VINAY KUMAR SINGH Track Structure for RRTS in India

Mr. Anil Kumar Shrangarya, Director Project (NCRTC)

Slab track (Slab track ) Slab Track, High-speed ballastless track

RRTS project is conceived in India with semi high-speed system having a design speed of 180 Kmph; operational speed of 160 Kmph. Considering the prime requirements of the RRTS system, slab track system developed by PORR, Austria was selected as suitable ballastless track system. PORR, Austria was also engaged for the transfer of Technology, customization of Track structure, providing Design, Specifications and Methodology for track installation. For the implementation of the slab track system, State of Art precast Slab production unit with a capacity of 2000 slabs per month is set up with high-precision Moulds controlled by Laser guided survey system. Track is being installed on the viaduct with accurate survey, exact placement of slabs and pouring with specially designed self-compacting concrete. The same slab system is also being implemented for laying of ballastless turnout.

4882 15 October 2022 at 5:08 pm REGAZZONI philippe MESEA-Contribution of the engineering to the ILS of the maintenance of the Tours Bordeaux High Speed Line Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING, INTEGRATED LOGISTIC SUPPORT

The high-speed line from Tours to Bordeaux in France is a vital component in the development of the national and European network. Linking Paris to Bordeaux in two hours four minutes, it improves links to Toulouse and Spain, to medium-sized towns in the west of France as well as contributing to the growth in freight traffic.

The public-private partnership for this new 302 km line was awarded in 2011 with commercial service due to start on 1st July 2017.

With 2×25 kV electrification and 4 sub-stations, the operating speed is 320 km/h and a maximum line speed of 350 km/h.

MESEA, a Vinci Concession /Systra JV is in charge of operation and maintenance of the line until 2061, which is the end of the concession. It monitors installations, undertakes corrective, preventative and predictive maintenance of all equipment on the line.

Whilst the maintenance of the is to the same standard as the rest of the French rail network, an innovative organisation and tools (multi-disciplined staff, agile tools and specific measurement means) have resulted in a 20% financial saving in staff costs without compromising performance.

Today, MESEA has a reliable predictive model to anticipate track geometry evolutions as a result of traffic. MESEA also has operational tools to predict signalling component degradation.

The Integrated Logistic Support enables an optimal organisation between the designer, constructor and maintainer to guarantee maintainability, to resolve sensitive issues such as accessibility, all this in a PPP context resulting in optimisations and innovations with greater latitude than in a traditional context.

In the presentation, we will detail the contribution of the engineering from the early stage of the design to the ILS of the maintenance of the line.

4884 15 October 2022 at 5:26 pm Andrea Fretta Automatic and real-time diagnosis of the ERTMS infrastructure using data provided by commercial trains

Vincenzo Galdi, Fabio Senesi, Vito Calderaro, Salvatore Buonincontri, Raffaele Malangone

Maintenance (signalling)(Maintenance (signalling)) ERMTS diagnostic, Predictive diagnostic

The adoption of the new standard ERTMS/ETCS certainly contributed to the success of the High-Speed Rail (HSR). The huge amount of information exchanged between the different players of the system represents an opportunity that, if well exploited, can bring benefits also in other activities of the railway sector, for example, in diagnostic and maintenance services. In fact, trains running on lines equipped with ERTMS level 2 constantly communicate with the trackside computer. The on-board computer sends, in addition to the information necessary for train supervision, also information on Balise Groups (BGs) reading errors, radio problems and quality parameters of the radio signal along its path. If correctly matched with the trackside ones, this information allows to automatically identify any failures of the infrastructure devices, thus making all the commercial trains a monitoring tool to support the ERTMS infrastructure diagnostic activities.
In this work, new functionality will be presented which will be integrated into Italian ERTMS diagnostic platform. It exploits the function Error reporting to RBC used in ERTMS level 2/3 which provides the reporting of BG errors. Taking advantage of this feature, it allows the automatic identification of the BG telegram reading degradation and proposes a method of evaluating the degradation trend. The diagnostic functionality developed and presented in the work will therefore show the infrastructure manager and the maintenance technician in a preventive manner a pre-failure degradation of the operation of the BG.
The work highlights the usefulness of anomaly detection by a large number of trains to classify a problem as singular or systematic, and to understand the degradation of railway infrastructure performance over time. Finally, to validate the functionality and the proposed method, we used the data collected from the real train runs of the Italian High-Speed lines. This work will present the results obtained.

4886 15 October 2022 at 5:43 pm Danilo Sorrentino UIC Harmotrack project: a global collaboration to harmonise and improve railway practices for track quality assessment through on-board dynamic measurements

Mercedes Gutierrez
David Villalmanzo
David Mirayo
Mélissa Faur
Manognya Gudapati
Julien Lafarge

Standardisation (Standardisation ) Track Quality Assessment, On-board Monitoring

Nowadays, the asset management of railway tracks is mainly driven by the analysis of track geometry parameters. However, track defects represent the less direct indicator of danger and require specific vehicles for the infrastructure quality assessment. Recently, numerous infrastructure managers and railway companies decided to perform complementary dynamic measurements to obtain supplementary information on the track quality. The use of this interesting data is complex since on-board measured accelerations/forces depend on various factors. Consequently, the UIC Harmotrack international research project proposes new analytical/numerical/harmonized industrial methods that define the links between track geometry and dynamic measurements to improve and standardise maintenance processes. This work gathers more than 300 international experts from 70 railway companies and research institutions. Firstly, an international benchmark on the uses of dynamic measurements for railway infrastructure monitoring was carried out. Then, three main Sub-Working Groups (SWG) were constituted to narrow down the research. SWG1 focuses on the relation between accelerations/forces and track geometry. SWG2 focuses on the detection of short track defects using axlebox accelerations. Finally, SWG3 is determining if smartphones can provide acceleration signals that are reliable enough to replace more expensive devices. The clear harmonisation of the use of dynamic measurements for track monitoring and the various topics tackled within the SWGs are important new goals for industrial and academic members. The UIC Harmotrack project is successfully helping the railway sector by connecting industrial needs and scientific approaches from universities. The opportunity of sharing measurement data, methodologies and simulation models while gathering the most recognised international experts sets the path for an effective global collaboration on these challenging subjects promising excellent results.

4887 15 October 2022 at 6:02 pm Asli Can Railway Tunnel Excavation by Conventional NATM wıith the Ground İmprovement of a Shallow Overburden Tunnel Ground with Weak Soil and Intensive Groundwater Conditions, A Case Study from Türkiye (Niğde-Ulukışla)

Ahmet ŞİRİN 1
Mücahid LEK 1
Kemal ACAR 2
Aslı CAN 2

Tunnels (Tunnels ) Tunnel Excavation, Soil Improvement, Deep soil mixing,

T-2 Tunnel of the Karaman – Ulukışla High-Speed Railway Project by the Republic of Turkey State Railways, is approximately 4 km long. Although the overburden along the tunnel varies between 60 to 100 m, the tunnel exit portal is very shallow. The topographic situation continues by decreasing from 60 m to 30 m of overburden depending on the tunnel exit slope. Even though the tunnel sections which are outside the entrance and exit portals are composed of weak-strength carbonate rocks, it is possible to solve the problems in terms of NATM rock and support class. However, the tunnel entrance and exit had to open in soft-medium solid clay units with low to high plasticity. Depending on the portal slope, a relatively flat topography is reached at the exit with a decreasing tunnel overburden. In this section, the soil conditions are very weak alluvial deposits contain high plasticity clay units with a groundwater level of 1.5 to 9 m. In addition to the difficulties of shallow tunnel excavation in the weak soil, the presence of BOTAŞ (Petroleum Pipeline Corporation) in the region greatly affected tunnel excavation. Consequently, it was obligatory to keep the deformations at the minimum values that will occur during the tunnel excavation. Moreover, high deformations can be seen in weak soil conditions may cause vertical piping and collapses. In order to prevent deformations, the mass at the tunnel passage was consolidated from the outside and strengthened with soil improvement. Thus, the tunnel was passed through a new solid mass created by Deep Soil Mixing. Tunneling in the improved soil with DSM which was also an economical solution provided stability. Although the tunnel support system in the weak soil was determined as a C3 base inverted, the B3 base inverted system design was sufficient in the soil where soil improvement was made with DSM. As a result, it was concluded that the DSM method was satisfactory in terms of the safety of both tunnel excavation and BOTAŞ line.

4888 15 October 2022 at 6:12 pm Danilo Sorrentino The use of dynamic simulations for the certification of the Moroccan new high-speed line Tanger-Kénitra

Patrick Dupont
Emmanuel Laurans
Gilles Saussine
Pascal Courcier

Homologation Certification (Homologation Certification ) Multi Body Simulation, High-Speed Line Certification

In order to ensure a high level of safety and reliability, dynamic integration tests are carried out for the certification of a new line to verify the proper functioning of all the elements of rail infrastructure. Through them, defects which represent a risk for the safety of the operation can be identified and fixed. However, experience shows that, under specific conditions such as high tight scheduling or transition zones between high speed and conventional lines, it is not always possible to respect the effective operation or test speed. Nowadays, numerical simulations based on Multi-Body System (MBS), permit the estimation of the train dynamic behaviour with regards to the track design and geometry even under these conditions. These models extend to a wide range of applications that include the verification of running stability and safety as well as the analysis of wear and fatigue at the wheel-rail interface. Following the previous experience regarding the certification of the French High Speed Line BPL, dynamic simulations have been integrated in the certification process for the new Moroccan High-Speed Line (Tanger – Kénitra). This certification process requires various steps: input data verification, definition of the vehicle/track speed, model calibration and validation through the analysis of measured accelerations. The respect of this process permits the correct use of MBS to assess the track quality. The obtained results allow focusing on defects with relevant effects on vehicle dynamics, thus improving maintenance procedures. The aim of this work is to present how numerical simulations conducted for the certification of the new Moroccan High-Speed Line brought additional and important information about vehicle dynamics complementing real acceleration measurements. Results showed that the vehicle dynamics can be predicted with good accuracy allowing the detection of critical track defects where measurements at target test speed are not available.

4889 15 October 2022 at 6:23 pm Rishabh Gautam Creating a Railway Metaverse for transforming railway projects and maintenance Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) Metaverse, Augmented Reality Virtual Reality

o General topic: Artificial Intelligence
o Main sub-topic: Information management & digital engineering BIM
o Detailed sub-topic: In Operations
o Key word 1: Metaverse
o Key word 2: Augmented Reality & Virtual Reality
o Author 1: Mr. Rishabh Gautam, Sr, DGM/S&T/NCRTC
o Author 2: Mr. Navneet Kaushik, Director Systems and Operations/NCRTC

The NCRTC has begun a journey of digital transformation with the purpose of creating a Digital Experience Zone, a Metaverse for Regional Railway, for an Immersive, Interactive Experience with Training, Guidance, Assistance, and Assessment. The goal is to leverage breakthrough digital technology to achieve goals such as enhancing operational efficiency, streamlining and improving user interaction, and making the organization more adaptable, agile, and responsive to ever-changing industry dynamics. The NCRTC plans to modernize the way training is delivered in India. Training courseware must be planned and provided in a safe, effective, efficient, and measurable manner. Training must be as realistic as feasible while not interfering with day-to-day operations.
To achieve these objectives, digital innovative core technologies have been identified by NCRTC.
The objectives are
Impart Training – To provide a more vivid concept explanation and object demonstration to trainees; with an immersive, and interactive teaching mode through a VR Platform.
Aid in Maintenance and Inspection – Building a module for maintenance of each equipment enabled by AR/MR with Supervised (Remote) assistance and non-Supervised independent training for maintenance.
Aid in Project Planning and Management – Visualize Project Dashboards in AR, VR and MR.
Aid in Project Planning and Management – Visualize Project Dashboards in AR, VR and MR. See project scheduling details at site using VR, AR and MR.

4891 15 October 2022 at 7:39 pm Gabriel PAPAIZ GARBINI Detection and Monitoring of High-Speed Trains and Vibration Events on a High-Speed Commercial Railway Line Using Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors

Abdelkader HAMADI
Annie HO
Pierre-Antoine LACAZE

Maintenance tools, drones, etc. (Maintenance tools, drones, etc. ) Distributed Acoustic Sensing, High speed railway monitoring

The use of distributed optical fiber sensors technology, over existing standard telecommunication infrastructure, is a very promising new solution for vibration detection in the railway domain. The interaction between light and optical fiber material, known as Rayleigh effect, allows instantaneous dynamic detection of mechanical and acoustic vibrations arising from the surrounding environment of the fiber. This is known as distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) system. This technology offers a continuous and distributed detection capacity, it can overcome many difficulties encountered in existing standard technologies for multiple railway use cases.

In our work, a 34km trial high speed railway line, in the east of France, has been chose to evaluate system capacity. This line included a 4km tunnel. The DAS system is installed in a telecom and signalling room and is connected to an optical fiber of one of the existing standard telecom cables laying along the line. Our results illustrate the ability of this system to cover a wide range of railway use cases without any change on existing infrastructure.

Firstly, detecting and following high speed trains. It also includes the accurate estimation of trains location and speed through time. The type of train can also be identified through the recorded vibration signal. Secondly, intrusion detection has been simulated through the detection of a maintenance agent walking along the track without any prior information of his presence. Lastly, the possibility of monitoring bridges and tunnels through the analysis of their vibration patterns.

This highlights the large dynamic range of DAS on detecting events at extremely different vibrations intensities and with no changing on existing infrastructure. Other use cases are under development, such as detecting broken rails. Next steps are the automatization of event detection by using advanced methods such as machine learning.

4893 15 October 2022 at 10:00 pm Yangbo Du Audited carbon reductions [ACRs] for encouraging sustainable modal shift

Danny Maylin, COO, INNOVO Net Zero
Paul Cooper, CIO, INNOVO Net Zero

Value of CO2 ton (Value of CO2 ton ) Scope 3 carbon emissions, Modal shift

It has become increasingly clear that climate action targets outline in the 2015 Paris Agreement are difficult if not outright prohibitive to achieve without modal shift from air and road to rail, and specifically for high-speed rail within the European Union, the aim is to double passenger traffic by 2030 and triple it by 2050. How might firms be incentivised to promote such modal shift, especially considering their commitments under the Science-Based Targets Initiative, when these emissions are largely outside their direct control?

We propose a mechanism of audited carbon reductions [ACRs] that firms can generate by reducing their emissions and then pass along to their customers, thus encouraging buyers to request that their suppliers reduce emissions or to switch to lower-emission-intensity suppliers. Specifically, this paper will explore the potential of generating ACRs through shifting work commuting and business-related travel from road and air to rail, including contributions to modal shift targets.

4894 15 October 2022 at 10:04 pm Mehmet Turşak Intelligent Railway Safety Monitoring System

Hamit Yaşasın

In Safety security (In Safety security ) Railmon, RailSafe

RailMon(Intelligent Railway Safety Monitoring System) project; It is a sensor communication network and central monitoring system that monitors the interaction of railways with environmental factors, real-time tracking and security from a central platform with specially developed hardware and software in which deep learning – artificial intelligence algorithms are applied. In addition to monitoring security, RailMon also functions as an auxiliary system for traffic management on railway lines without signaling.

4896 16 October 2022 at 12:31 am Ümit GÜNEY Ankara Sivas Railway – Elmadağ Kırıkkale Section, Construction of T-15 Tunnel Under High Groundwater Pressure by NATM Method

Ahmet Şirin
Suat Güllü
Hüseyin Çelik
Servet Karahan
Candan Gökçeoğlu

Tunnels (Tunnels ) NATM Tunnel, High speed train

Depending on the increasing needs in the field of logistics in our country and in the world, the need for tunnel structures is increasing in the construction of new transportation corridors. In this context, the T-15 Tunnel located in the Elmadağ Kırıkkale section of the Ankara-Sivas line, which is one of the important transportation routes, has been examined. NATM was used in the construction of the tunnel. In the tunnel, which was built in three stages in total, excavations were carried out in four stages, in some cases two-stage excavations in the upper half and excavations in the lower half and the floor. The total length of the tunnel is 4800 meters. The maximum cover height above the tunnel exceeds 200 meters. The gauge of the tunnel, which consists of a double track railway, is 8 meters. The total excavation area reaches 160 square meters in the rising shoring sections. The T-15 Tunnel was dug in the ophiolitic mélange in the Central Anatolia region. The tunnel, which has a complex geological structure, is generally located within the schist units. There are regional faults and block limestone transitions. There are very weak and weathered rock masses in the tunnel with RMR and Q classifications. There are locally weathered graphite schist-schist units as ground. In the fault zones, there are sandy silty clay (fault clay) matrices that are less hard, weak-very weak-strength, very-fully weathered, extremely fractured, folded, kneaded. The water income is quite high in the fault zones on the route where the tunnel passes. During the tunnel construction, high amounts of sudden floods were experienced inside the tunnel. In order to control the water pressures, the groundwater was discharged with the drillings drilled from the surface and the pumps. In addition, horizontal drills were made depending on the excavation progress. The groundwater behind the mirror was drained with horizontal drills. In this way, water pressures are reduced and possible dent risks are

4897 16 October 2022 at 12:48 am Yangbo Du Community regeneration and reinvestment trusts: value capture potential for financing high-speed rail Project architecture (Public ownership, PPP, Franchises, etc.) (Project architecture (Public ownership, PPP, Franchises, etc.) ) Value capture, Transit-oriented development

This paper introduces the concept of a community regeneration and reinvestment trust [CRRT] in the context of expanding high-speed rail and complementary regional and local transit networks. A hybrid of a community land trust [CLT], a real estate investment trust [REIT], and an investment-in-infrastructure trust [InvIT], a CRRT facilitates the recycling of uplift in land value from public infrastructure extension or upgradation without necessarily requiring outright acquisition of land or introduction of land value taxation. By financing the capital costs of infrastructure through development rights in areas served by the new infrastructure, a CRRT effectively removes the requirement for direct operating revenues to cover debt service for initial construction and thus enables taking fuller advantage of the low operating unit costs of high-speed rail to extend the benefits of low-cost, low-carbon transport more broadly, comprehensively, and equitably.

4898 16 October 2022 at 1:55 am Yangbo Du Americatakt: designing a clean-sheet high-speed rail network connecting four North American megaregions Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  (Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  ) Integrated planning, Programme facilitation

Despite having lagged in high-speed rail development for decades, Canada and the United States are in the often underappreciated situation of starting from effectively a tabula rasa both in existing infrastructure and operations in which the advantages of clean-sheet design and planning are particularly evident. While various broad proposals have been subjects of discussion for decades, none covered phasing of implementation or integration with regional and local transit to any actionable extent. This concept note outlines an indicative high-speed rail network serving the Eastern United States with extensions into Canada that can be developed from mixing and matching best-in-class international practices, spanning Japanese urban rail-style efficacy, Spanish-French construction cost control, Swiss-German-Dutch integrated service design and planning, and Chinese operating speeds.

4900 16 October 2022 at 3:31 am Ayoub Oulaarbi Diagnosis of Induction Motors Using Ensemble Learning by Combining Different Models Maintenance tools (Maintenance tools ) Predictive Maintenance, Supervised Learning

Induction machines are constantly running for hours in modern industry, making them more susceptible to damage. As a result, early defect identification is necessary to save maintenance costs and avoid excessive costs and unexpected downtimes. The vibration signals carry rich information about rotor bar health conditions and are commonly used to diagnose rotor faults. However, collecting these signals is expensive. To overcome these disadvantages, motor current signal-based broken rotor bar fault diagnosis methods offer an attractive solution. As such, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on motor current data that utilizes statistical features, genetic algorithm (GA), correlation, and machine learning models for broken rotor bar fault diagnosis. First, the statistical features are extracted from the motor current signals. Second, GA and correlation are utilized to reduce the number of features and select the most relevant ones from the features of the database. Finally, three different classification algorithms namely KNN, LightGBM, and XGBoost, are combined into a Metaclassifier that has better generalization performance than each classifier alone using the majority voting principle, trained and tested using these features to provide an intelligent methodology for the automatic diagnosis of the fault severity during runtime of the motor. The faults severity is considered as one, two, three, and four broken rotor bars. This combination of techniques increases the accuracy and reduces the computational complexity.

4901 16 October 2022 at 6:39 pm Romain Bosramiez Alstom range of very high-speed train: how Avelia Liberty and Avelia Horizon actually share the same DNA Functional & technical specifications (Functional & technical specifications ) Europe, USA

Alstom range of high-speed trains (Avelia™) encompasses 4 different trains – 2 of them share similar architecture: Avelia Horizon and Avelia Liberty. Indeed, those 2 trains both have concentrated power and articulated bogies. Avelia Liberty was specifically developed for North American market (compliant with Buy American Act and FRA standard)

This paper will go over the background and technical approach behind those 2 very high-speed trains, underlining their strong commonalities but also showing what makes them so unique and specific to their respective markets.

4902 17 October 2022 at 9:18 am Lucie Anderton Anderton Panel event Promoting High Speed Rail as a Climate solution

Pinar Yilmazer – UIC
Armelle Weber – Thalys

Intramodal competition (Intramodal competition ) Marketing, modal shift

Improving the liveability of local communities can be fostered by promoting environmentally friendly transport. In response to combating climate change and the mobility of modern society, there is an increasing recognition for the role of high-speed rail (HSR) transport, in particular in attracting passengers away from short and medium distance aviation trips. The analysis by the International Energy Agency considering a 2050 ‘Net Zero Scenario’, they model activity levels in high-speed rail will need to increase by 60% by 2030. Whilst despite an increasing awareness and increase in environmental considerations influencing mode choice, passengers are often still choosing to fly when high speed rail options are available. This panel will facilitate the debate on the reasons that influence mode choices and what levers and tools might be used to effect significant modal shift. Speakers will share their perspectives on key drivers, market challenges, subsidies, polluter pay and perception management as high-speed operators aim to increase their market share by 2030. The panel will discuss the role of marketing tools and sustainability reporting systems to better promote the benefits of rail as a climate solution.

4903 17 October 2022 at 9:20 am Lucie Anderton Anderton Panel event – Improving social and environmental impact of high-speed railways and best practices

Pinar Yilmazer – UIC

Environmental mitigation & compensation (Environmental mitigation & compensation ) Externalities, best practice

The global network of high speed rail is expanding rapidly. Over 25 countries have developed high-speed rail networks, totalling more than 45 000 km of track. Whilst the increase of high speed is recognised as critical in decarbonising transport, they are concerns that the external costs of high-speed transport could increase with some significant negative impacts on people and wildlife. High speed rail is still considered to be ‘infrastructure heavy’ and people living near potential new lines have serious concerns about impacts such as noise, landscape and visual effects. Criticisms are made by environmental NGOs around the use of carbon intensive materials and loss of wildlife and habitats. The panel will discuss how the high speed rail can better address their economic, social, and environmental performance in design, construction and operation. The panel will discuss the value in promoting knowledge sharing through international platforms. The implementation of good practices can help to avoid and mitigate negative impacts and enhance the potential positive impacts of transport infrastructure design and operation on habitat and public health. Speakers will share some innovative best practices in reducing their environmental and social externalities and how they are effectively creating an even more sustainable form of transport. This panel will promote an exchange of knowledge mainstreaming sustainable best practices aimed at sharing and replicating.

4906 17 October 2022 at 12:21 pm Massimiliano Astrologo digitalizing customer experience and anticipating customer needs in case of disruptions Competition on service quality customer experience (Competition on service quality customer experience ) customer experience, digitalization

Project target is double: from one side digitalizing customer experience; on the other side, anticipating customer need of support/help in case of disruptions and delay faced on board the train. Working in a very competitive market (both domestic and cross-border one), with the scope to gain a premium brand positioning toward the market, we developed and implemented a project to support passengers in case of connection loss due to a delay of the train where the passenger is travelling. Through this process, our staff can contact the customer and assist him with a new reservation on the next train, with a taxi reservation to reach final destination, hotel booking and reservation moved to the first train of the next day. No more queue in the assistance desk, higher customer satisfaction due to the quickes management of his own problem, higher flexibility of people management.

4910 17 October 2022 at 3:18 pm Borja Aróstegui THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE GREAT EUROPEAN STATIONS WITH THE ARRIVAL OF THE HIGH-SPEED RAIL Architectural design and placemaking (Architectural design and placemaking ) stations, railway heritage

The emergence of high-speed rail in Europe in the last few decades of the 20th century represented the resurgence of a means of transport in progressive decline since the popularization of the car and the plane. The railway decay brought, in many cases, the abandonment, or even the demolition, of historical stations and the deterioration of its urban environment. The need for adaptation of the great railway stations to serve the new transport system, along with interest in enhancing the historic buildings and their central locations, has resulted in important transformations.

The three main implications that the arrival of the high-speed rail brings to these historical stations are:

– Intermodality: the trip does not start when the passenger gets on the train. Before that, he has reached the station by another means of transport. Intermodality becomes necessary.

– Commercial development: nowadays, the emergence of commercial areas is not necessarily linked to passenger flows but created as a hotspot due to their privileged position in the city centre.

– The enhancement of the station and its urban development: with the arrival of the high-speed rail, the old European stations have moved from being a problem for the city and for the railway companies to be the great opportunity for enhancement for the stations and its urban settings.

After the analysis of the different implications that the high-speed rail brings to the historical stations, some conclusions might be drawn, with the hope that the European experience can be helpful in other places of the world:

In the last decades of the 20th Century, the great innovation in railway architecture was to consider the station as the place where all the means of transport could interact to lower travel time. The first decades of the 21st Century, in turn, are marked by a greater presence of commercial and recreational activities within the station and their urban integration and accessibility.

4913 17 October 2022 at 3:57 pm NACIMA BARON Changing High Speed Stations into urban climate shelters : low tech solutions for combatting heat Island effect In resilience terms (In resilience terms ) heat island, low tech solutions for High Speed station refreshment

The communication concerns the bioclimatic rehabilitation and refreshment of high speed stations in France and Spain.
It responds to the operational need to determine rapid, effective and financially accessible procedures
for the mitigation of localized urban heat islands in and around High Speed environments in a context of sustainable and resilient engineering perspective.

refreshment doesn’t exactly means refurbushment. Conceptually speaking, refreshing HS rail Station is a demanding challenge concept because :

– In the sense of thermodynamics, it refers to measures and models for the control of extreme temperature variations in the various places (hall, platforms, …)
– In the sense of planning, it covers the High Speed renovation and a new perspective over the materials of the built structure (glass, iron, concrete, etc)
– In the common sense, refreshing means updating, hence the reconnection of refreshed facilities with flows of knowledge, skills and legal-technical contexts in terms of HS station “rebirth” and new start

Four integrated tasks are developed in order to stimulate low tech solutions for High speed station refreshment

Task 1: Heat island fine-tune modelling and simulation :
Task 2: Benchmark and engineering cross-expertise
Task 3: Enrichment of the ICU score to a situational perspective of High SPeed rail user and exploration of thermal comfort (according to season, weather, hour), individual criteria (age, occupation) and behavioural patterns.
Task 4: Toward a label of refreshed high speed rail environments
The conditions for the creation of a label are evaluated from (1) the heuristic potential of a refreshment re-semantization and (2) the capacities of collaboration on innovative projects in a networked innovation governance framework

4916 18 October 2022 at 5:14 am Andrea Giuricin International hub: which future for the stations? Business diversification (Business diversification ) hub, business

International hubs have a clear role in the transportation sector. The example coming from the aviation shows how the main full service carriers developed hubs to connect the traffic from the smaller destination to the main global hubs (hub and spokes network). In the railway sector, the defintion of hub is more complex, due to the fact the international traffic has a lower level than the domestic traffic. The development of international connections and the new high-speed lines have the possibility of changing the future of the stations.
The management of stations as hubs could have a key role in development of important point of connection inside the cities in Europe. In the paper it will be analyzed the possibilities for the stations as hubs in developing business and economy of a city and the example of Milan will be take in consideration in the study.

4919 18 October 2022 at 7:02 am BEDEL Francis Impacts and benefits of Rail digitalization () Digitalization, Mobility

Preliminary version
Impacts and benefits of Rail digitalization
Since its very beginning, more than one century ago, Rail has been facing and transcending several revolutions:
Industrial revolution

Oil revolution
IT revolution
And now, digital revolution
The new challenge for the 21st century is obviously our capacity to respond to the increasing demand for mobility for passengers and transportation for goods.
The demand for mobility is exponentially increasing year after year. It requires a total redesign of the existing offer and implies the implementation and the development of a modal shift.
Rail would be the backbone of this new model.
The problem is global but the answers may vary from one continent to another, from one country to another.
One of the main issues to be tackled is the increase of transportation capacity.
In many cases, the construction of new tracks is impossible due either to infrastructure or financial reasons.
The safety, security, reliability are more than ever a prerequisite to all transport modes.
Obviously, the challenge is huge.
Digital has to be considered a leverage to foster the development of Rail and most probably the only way to meet customers’ expectations on time.
Digital impacts all steps of Rail production chain : from assets management to marketing, from planning to production and customers information.
UIC has clearly decided to face the challenge and is already involved in several key digital projects:
– Digital modelisation
– 5G and FRMCS programme
– Freight Digital Platforms
– Cybersecurity
– OpenRail
Are among the main ones.
With all these initiatives, UIC is definitely at the very heart of Rail digitalization and will allow the Rail community the conditions to play successfully its key role in the mobility chain

4920 18 October 2022 at 7:30 am Niall Fagan Designing High Speed Railways for High Reliability and Climate Resilience, incorporating Data Driven Technology

Sin Sin Hsu

Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) Reliability, Resilience

This paper describes how a highly reliable high speed rail system can be achieved from the specification and early stage design by implementing a well developed asset management strategy. It further develops the theme of choosing a trackform for low maintenance (Ankara 2018) and broadens the concept to cover system design which incorporates digital technology, lower carbon footprint and climate resilience.
For all new high speed railway infrastructure the passenger experience must be enhanced to cover real time information and reliability of the service. To achieve high reliability the infrastructure has to perform to a level that is above what is normally seen in many railway systems around the world. This is more so when the railway is a high capacity, high speed railway. In addition, a new high speed railway system must also be designed to maintain these levels of performance during extreme weather events that are more likely to occur in the future.
To achieve this, all condition monitoring and as much examination of the infrastructure as technically possible should be planned to be undertaken with automated systems with all data being captured and interpreted in real time.
This will include: Remote condition monitoring of all electrical/electronic and mechanical assets and embedded sensors in key civil infrastructure. Measurement of track and overhead line performance by service trains in addition to diagnostic trains. Use of video and noise pattern monitoring of boundary security both line side and on service trains. Human access to the infrastructure is to be minimised.

4921 18 October 2022 at 7:38 am David Martin How train travel is promoted in Spain as a sustainable form of tourism Impact on tourism (at international level)(Impact on tourism (at international level)) sostenibility, tourism

How Renfe has taken advantage of Spain’s tourist attraction and its extensive high-speed network to promote sustainable tourism, while at the same time developing a project of tourist trains both for luxury (Transcantábrico trains or Al-Andalus) and for those seeking experiences based on the combination of train travel with cultural and gastronomic tourism. An example of successful tourist trains in Galicia a combination of public-private cooperation.

4923 18 October 2022 at 1:00 pm Adele Kamel Passenger experience shapes future design

Johan Berhin. Founder and Designer at Green

Architectural design and placemaking (Architectural design and placemaking ) Placemaking station design, passenger satisfaction

The best of today’s modern railways give passengers a glimpse of the upcoming ultra-hi-speed, energy-efficient train travel. But will train design alone be enough to propel the industry into the future? Experts claim that tomorrow’s rail travel will be less about boarding the train and more about enjoying the station.

4924 18 October 2022 at 1:21 pm Mercedes Gutiérrez Ferrándiz The UIC SAFIRST Crosswinds Project

Terry Johnson (RSSB)
Elaine Allain (SNCF)
José Conrado Martinez (ADIF)
Mercedes Gutierrez Ferrandiz (UIC)

Railway resilience to extreme weather events and emergencies (Railway resilience to extreme weather events and emergencies ) Cross winds, Assessment and mitigation

In 2018, UIC published a White Paper produced by the Train Track Interaction Sector of the Rail Forum in the field of railway aerodynamics. This has largely been driven by the increasing speeds of high speed passenger trains. However, there are still existing and new lines being designed for the use of mixed traffic at conventional train speeds, including freight services, driven by local demands and the modal shift from road to rail. The White paper looked at the field of railway aerodynamics, reviewing the state of the art, identifying problems and knowledge gaps, and proposing areas of research.
One such problem area was in the assessment of the safety in crosswinds of railway vehicles with maximum speeds greater than 140 km/h and less than 250 km/h, where the LOC&PAS TSI does not provide limit values to assess vehicles and the INF TSI does not prescribe methods or guidance for Infrastructure Managers (IMs) to assess their lines for crosswind exposure and the risk of train accidents, or how to implement mitigation methods.
As a consequence, the SAFIRST Project was launched in March 2019 to research these issues and to develop guidance for Infrastructure Managers eventually to be contained in an IRS. The project, led by UIC, is truly an international collaboration with representatives from companies in Spain, Italy, France, Finland, Sweden, and Great Britain.
The Project has provided useful background and a practical methodology for Infrastructure Managers to show the crosswind safety of their lines, filling a gap in the TSIs. The main outputs have been three technical reports detailing the work of the WPs. In addition, UIC IRS 40454 Demonstrating crosswind safety of railway lines was published in 2022. The outputs from SAFIRST are currently under consideration for updating the next revision of CEN standard EN14067.

4928 18 October 2022 at 2:04 pm Roberto Vangeli HST Stations – Past, Present and Future  

Sara Venturoni – Head of Railway Stations Department RFI
Antonello Martino – Head of Engineering and Investments Stations Department RFI

Architectural design and placemaking (Architectural design and placemaking ) Inclusive and accessible facilties for all, Station functionalities (incl. multimodality integration)

The stations of the future should have a double role: intermodal hub, with the aim to increase and facilitate multimodal connections, and service hub, with different services offered to the passengers who can decide to stay in the station also for recreation activities. That trasformation is carried on through a process/methodology based on four main steps:
1) Transports analysis, concerning the passenger stations’ urban environment, inter-modality and pedestrian transit facilities (via static and dynamic pedestrian flow analyses)
2) Stakeholders’ engagement, starting from central and territorial institutions that plan and govern urban transformations and mobility systems for the economic sustainability of the process
3) Social sustainability (e.g. redevelopment of external areas, overcoming of architectural barriers and creation of accessible spaces through the connection of the urban fabric), Environmental sustainability ( e.g. improvement of energy performance of buildings, production of energy from renewable resources and CO2 emission reduction via sustainable mobility), Economic sustainability (e.g. meeting international LEED and Envision protocols and providing Cost Effectiveness Analysis of the investments)
4) Digitalization, providing detailed information on the entire cycle of the work via innovative technologies (e.g. using BIM tools).
In this paper we selected four high speed stations that represent this process development and evolution: Reggio Emilia AV Mediopadana (past), Roma Tiburtina (current), Venezia Mestre and Bergamo (future).

4929 18 October 2022 at 2:09 pm Francesca Mocetti Advanced application of UIC 406-based degree of utilization analysis for three big Italian railway nodes

Matteo Primizia
Luigi Elia
Alberto Rabachin
Rodolfo Di Martino

Station capacity management (Station capacity management ) strategic planning, terminal station

The planning of rail transport cannot ignore the study of the degree of utilization of the underlying infrastructure.
Nowadays, the time compression method, as described in UIC Code 406, is a standard tool in this field. However, while its application in railway lines study is strongly established, the same cannot be said when trying to evaluate the degree of utilization of the big nodes, which currently represent the real bottleneck of a complex railway network.
The aim of this work is to quantify, with an objective indicator, the degree of congestion reached within three major Italian railway stations: Roma Termini, Milano Centrale and Venezia Santa Lucia.
A specific algorithm has been designed and implemented, which is capable of “compressing” the train timetable, considering any time window, any resolution level and, at the same time, respecting the constraints system established.
Having defined a priori a railway timetable and an acceptable degree of utilization limit threshold, the analysis identified the greatest utilization time slots. In addition, the tool has proved itself to be powerful and flexible in terms of verification and “what if” design.

4932 18 October 2022 at 5:12 pm francesco russo Demand Analysis in High Speed Rail: modelling of run service choice from daily evolution of tickets

Domenico Sgro,
Giuseppe Musolino

Intramodal competition (incl. stations) (Intramodal competition (incl. stations) ) Run choice model, train ticket evolution

According to the Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer, there are more than 100,000 kilometres of planned and operative High-Speed Rail (HSR) lines in the world: 52,484 km in operation, 11,960 km under construction, 11,383 km planned, and 28,586 km planned over the longer term. The largest network today is in China, followed by Spain, which has overtaken Japan and, then, France. The new HSR line are built in Morocco and in Saudi Arabia.
The HSR network in Italy includes less than 1000 kilometres in operation and about 120 km under construction.
The paper will focus on the travel demand impacts of HSR, with an emphasis on the development of models simulating the choice of the run among existing alternatives by users travelling between a given origin-destination pair.
The research contribution concerns a procedure for the identification of the run choice of users, as well as the development of choice model in the above-mentioned dimension. The procedure is composed by two main phases. The former phase deals with the construction of the choice set of alternatives, analysing the time series of the train tickets, and identifying the user’s dynamic of choice set and of choices of . The latter phase deals with the specification, calibration and validation of choice model of the run.
The proposed procedure has been experimented on the relationship Rome-Milan (Italy), through the calibration of a disaggregated run choice model belonging to the class of Random Utility Models (RUMs).
This work is aimed to support transport planners and decision-makers in the evaluation of future investment in HSR lines and services, by means of methodological and modelling tools to assess the potential travel demand impacts.

4933 18 October 2022 at 5:13 pm Carles Casas Esplugas Fostering Rail Tourism: insights for high speed services

Vanessa Pérez
Ana García Pando

Impact on tourism (at international level)(Impact on tourism (at international level)) Rail Tourism, Commercial attractiveness

Since 2016, a TopRail group of experts has been working together and with tourism sector associations to better understand and foster rail tourism.

We propose a presentation about the last TopRail reports on how increase attractiveness for rail tourism and what are the elements that make it more attractive for touroperators and final clients, with a special insight on high speed services.

This presentation will be based on the information provided by UIC TopRail Group, International Associations of Touroperators in Europe and USA and in the active research of literature, new trends and actions from the railway sector to boost the tourism services around the World.

4935 18 October 2022 at 5:36 pm Adrina Bachiller Saña The potential of cross-border high speed rail services: the case between Barcelona and Montpellier/Toulouse

Carles Casas Esplugas
Pere Calvet Tordera

Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  (Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  ) Cross-Border Services, Regional Services

There are not commercially attractive rail services between France and Spain through the international le Perthus tunnel between Figueres and Perpignan. In Particular, the border regions of Catalonia and Occitanie lack a rail offer connecting its main cities: Barcelona, Toulouse and Montpellier.
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya has produced a detailed report stating not only the potential but the interest of establishing cross-border services linking these three cities. At the congress the main findings of this business analysis will be presented together with the deep challenges that a cross-border operation faces.
The specific case of this border will be presented as it represents a unique situation were there are not just two but three infrastructure managers involved. The hurdles to overcome, from the most expensive infrastructure charges to the technical and staff-related issues are, by far, the most challenging in Europe.
The communication will present the overall situation covering from infrastructures and management issues to the commercial and practical approach proposed by FGC.

4937 18 October 2022 at 7:51 pm Giuseppe Musolino National travel demand: mode choice HSR-air from evolution of cost level of tickets

Co-authors: Domenico Sgro, Francesco Russo

Intermodal competition (Intermodal competition ) HSR-air mode choice model, Relationship Rome-Milan (Italy)

HSR (High Speed Rail) lines generate impacts that have been widely studied and analysed in the scientific literature in last decades. They may be grouped in three classes: transportation (e.g. infrastructures, services and demand), socio-economic (e.g. economic growth, accessibility, regional equity) and environmental (e.g. energy, decarbonisation).
The paper will focus on the transport demand, with an emphasis on the development of models simulating the mode choice by users among two alternatives: air and HSR.
The research contribution concerns a procedure for the identification of the mode choice of individual users, as well as the development of choice model in the mode dimension. The procedure is composed by two main phases. The former phase deals with the identifications of the mode choices of single users starting from the analysis of the daily evolution of cost level of tickets for the two modes. The latter phase deals with the specification, calibration and validation of mode choice model.
The proposed procedure has been experimented on the relationship Rome-Milan (Italy), through the calibration of a mode choice model belonging to the class of Random Utility Models (RUMs).
This work is aimed to support transport planners and decision-makers in the evaluation of future investment in HSR lines and services, by means of methodological and modelling tools to assess the potential travel demand impacts.

4938 19 October 2022 at 8:02 am Mercedes Gutiérrez Ferrándiz Journey through Whole System Decision Making

Andy KIRWAN (Network Rail)

Asset management (project development)(Asset management (project development)) Asset Management, Rail competitiveness

This research is aimed at enabling a whole system approach to asset management decision making, while retaining the strengths of the traditional way of organizing railway companies around engineering disciplines, operations, work management and support functions, which has persisted for almost 200 years.
The traditional structure has clear advantages, including faster decisions, clear accountabilities and the concentration of specialisms. However, it also has the tendency to create silos in which decisions are not taken collaboratively, which are not adequately communicated to those affected, and which may be locally optimized but are sub-optimal at the whole system level.
Without improvements, the siloed organization will not be fit for meeting the challenges of changing passenger and freight demand, maximizing the benefits from digitalization, contributing to decarbonization targets and adapting to climate change.
These challenges require a whole system response. The work is a collaborative effort being led by the UIC Asset Management Working Group (AMWG), which includes representation from ten national railway organizations.
Many of the individual levers of cost reduction have been applied and face diminishing returns. There is strong and credible evidence in rail and other sectors that new forms of efficiency and improved outputs can be generated from the adoption of a whole system approach.
A whole system approach would have been necessary to improve the competitiveness of rail in a pre-Covid railway. However, it becomes even more vital if the railway is to meet the challenges and opportunities associated with changing demand for railway services, the transformational impacts of automation and digitalization, and the need to adapt to climate change.

4939 19 October 2022 at 9:44 am Michael Beswick Beswick Resilient River Landscapes: HS2, mitigating Climate Change through Landscape Design Environmental mitigation & compensation (Environmental mitigation & compensation ) Environment

High Speed Two (HS2) is the UK Government’s proposal for a new, high-speed railway corridor spanning the length of the UK. HS2 is an extremely ambitious project, currently the largest infrastructure project in Europe and arguably the most important environmental, social and economic scheme in the UK at present. The River Cole is located within the southernmost section of the Delta Junction, a triangular section of High Speed Two (HS2) Phase One, where the route curves west towards Birmingham and runs north towards Crewe. In order to accommodate the HS2 route the River Cole will be realigned.
Referencing the HS2 key design principles of Conserve, Enhance, Restore and Transform this paper considers the effectiveness of the project specific design guidance and industry-wide best practice in delivering the river realignment, whilst maintaining and improving a holistic river environment: Conservation of existing elements within the landscape means preserving the environment and landscape character including the local heritage site at Coleshill Manor;
Landscape Enhancement will require integrating the displaced river into the existing landscape through designing new bank shapes, contouring and meanders to create a diverse natural river channel over time; Restoring the landscape during and after the construction phase, then emphasising its unique character, is key. The realignment of the river will allow new shallows, riffles and pools to be created. Reconnecting footpaths along the river will be an added benefit for the local community. Transformation of the river landscape requires the development of a robust and species rich wetland ecology around the river. The design process is driven by habitat creation, improved biodiversity and landscape enhancement realised though the collaboration of several disciplines aimed at climate resilience and a richer tapestry of life through biodiversity.

4940 19 October 2022 at 1:55 pm Nicoletta Antonias A new approach for stakeholder engagement along the entire life-cycle of railway infrastructures

Marco Montesi

Public stakeholder Consultation and engagement (Public stakeholder Consultation and engagement ) Sustainable infrastructures, Stakeholder Engagement

In line with Sustainable Internatinal policies, the adoption of a new model of “Stakeholder Engagement” acquires a key role to enhance the integration of the infrastructural projects in the territory.
In this paper, we present the methodological approach developed by RFI for a new model of “Stakeholder Engagement” through the implementation of tools which make stakeholders an active part of the development and implementation of a sustainable infrastructure, also providing examples of specific tools implemented for the Brescia Verona High Speed Rail (HRS) project.
Since the investment planning phase, RFI arranges meetings with stakeholders in order to identify projects that meet the expectations of the territory. through the institution of the “Technical Table of Listening”, where Stakeholders can share with RFI specific project proposals
The dialogue with the Stakeholders in the design phase allows to identify the key issues of interest for the communities in order to create a stable partnership with citizens. In this new systemic approach to Stakeholder Engagement, RFI uses innovative Social Web Monitoring and Sentiment Analysis tools based on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning algorithms: a factual example of this approach is related to the Brescia Verona HRS where a specific social web monitoring has been carried out in order to identify key issues of interest and to understand the sentimenti of Stakeholder
The Stakeholders Engagement continues also during the construction phase when it is crucial to inform the Stakeholders about the progress of the work and the related interferences with the territory and to collect needs and concerns with respect to the construction sites. In this vision RFI is implementing a network of Info Points, inside the railway stations, in order to offer to the Stakeholders the opportunity to create a direct communication channel that allows an active engagement in a wider process of transformation.

4941 19 October 2022 at 1:57 pm Nicoletta Antonias The value of Sustainability during construction

Marco Montesi

Severance and maintaining community connectivity   (Severance and maintaining community connectivity   ) sustainable construction site, stakeholder engagement

In the new vision of the infrastructural development, the Sustainability acquires a key role to support the realization of sustainable infrastructures, from the planning to the construction and management of the work. Specifically, the construction phase represents for RFI a particularly critical and complex period, in particular in relation to the possible environmental effects in the concerned territory.
RFI has defined a new methodology to reorient all internal processes and activities towards a new approach based on Sustainability as a key driver to achieve a green transition of the entire rail transport value chain.
This paper aims at investigating the advantages of this methodological approach and demonstrating how an environmental supervision of the construction site is used to effectively prevent and solve any environmental issues related to the construction phase of the works. The example of construction sites related to the Brescia Verona High Speed Rail will be reported in the paper to show the benefit of this methodological approach.
To build sustainable infrastructures, it is necessary to implement a “sustainable construction site”, reducing the environmental impact, reducing the use of raw materials, promoting the circular use of resources and preventing waste production. A “sustainable construction site” must also ensure the protection of ecosystems and biodiversity, providing for carbon footprint reduction-oriented solutions.
The attention to these issues is reflected in the request to the contractors to adopt, as part of the contract, specific Environmental Management Systems, compliant with the requirements of the standard UNI EN ISO 14001.
For this reason, specific contractual requirements have been defined in the Agreements with the aim of driving the Contractor, both in the design phase and in the construction phase of the project, to give a concrete contribution for the achievement of global sustainable development strategies.

4944 20 October 2022 at 8:46 am RAJI YOUSSEF Artificial Intelligence Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) digital engineering BIM, Information management

The general topic
Artificial intelligence
The main sub-theme
In the technical fields
The detailed sub-theme
In infrastructure
One or two keywords of their choice
Information management and BIM digital engineering

4945 20 October 2022 at 9:10 am Cai Yi Investigation on the influence of complex excitation of wheel set on the vibration characteristics of train axle box

Jingyuan Wang; Xiaokang Liao; Yi Zhang; Jianhui Lin

Service quality (cooperation)(Service quality (cooperation)) Wheelset differentiation, Vibration characteristics of axle box

With the continuous development of high-speed railway and the increasing speed of train operation, “safety” has always been the primary goal of railway transportation. As an important part of high-speed railway system, high-speed train bears the heavy burden of transporting passengers and goods. Its high security is inseparable from the intelligent operation and maintenance of the key components of the train. As one of the key components of high-speed train, axle-box bearing, plays an important role in traction transfer. Axle-box bearings are connected with wheelsets and axle box boxes, and the coupling relationship of these components determines the severity of the influence of wheel defects and wheelset differences on the running status of bearings.
Aiming at the phenomenon of wheelset differentiation in the same bogie, the distribution characteristics of contact load on raceway of axle-box bearing caused by wheel diameter difference and wheelset misalignment were explored. The results show that the wheel diameter difference aggravates the lateral movement of the inner and outer races of the bearing. In addition, when the wheel diameter difference is 0~2 mm, the contact load fluctuation range of axle box bearing is within 1 kN. Wheelset misalignment will shorten the roller non-bearing zone time. Based on the above phenomenon, the fitting equation between the front wheelset deflection angle and the bearing roller non-bearing zone time is established to predict the bearing roller non-bearing zone time.

4947 20 October 2022 at 1:16 pm Corrado Rindone Factors influencing HSR planning and designing processes from existing European lines

Francesco Russo

Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  (Network planning and development at regional (continental) scale  ) railway lines, designing

High Speed Rail (HSR) represents an opportunity for serving passenger mobility at medium-long distances. The extension of HSR lines in the world is increasing. The largest network today is in China, followed by Spain, Japan and France, actually new lines are building in Morocco and Saudi Arabia. Generally, the objective of realised lines is to reduce temporal and spatial distances between to railway terminals. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing HSR lines to verify how a HSR line produces direct connections between two territories, making railway system more competitive respect to other transport alternative (e.g. travel by air).
To achieve the paper’s objectives, information and data about the European HSR lines, in Italy France and Spain, are collected. The planimetric characteristics of existing lines are focused. A model for calculating the final distance along the HSR line is proposed, starting from the direct distance by air, from the existing conventional line and other factors connected with the physical and social environment. Elaborations of the obtained data allow the definition of quantitative indicators to find common and uncommon factors influencing the planning and designing processes of the HSR lines.
The main result is connected to the review of existing planimetric characteristics of the HSR lines. The results obtained from elaborations show the improvement of connections’ performances if the HSR length is very proxime to the distance as the crow flies.
A correct design of a HSR line contribute to increase sustainable mobility in terms of social, economic and environmental goals. The obtained results are useful as address for operators and decision makers involved in the transportation planning and design process at national and international level. Further developments regard: other factors that influence HSR design; efficiency and effectiveness performances of existing HSR lines, compared to air lines and conventional rail.

4950 24 October 2022 at 3:18 pm Carlos Fernandes Portuguese High Speed Project

Institutional – Infraestruturas de Portugal

Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) Portuguese High Speed Line

The project contemplates the construction of a high-speed passenger line between Porto and Lisbon, and another line from Porto to Valença, on the border with Spain.
It will allow an operational speed of 300 km/h and will be built in Iberian gauge (1668 mm) using polyvalent sleepers to facilitate its future migration to standard gauge. Once the line is fully built it will be possible to travel between the two Portuguese major cities in 1 hour and 15 minutes, whilst currently the fastest train journey takes about 3 hours.
The new high-speed line will be connected to the conventional railway system in several locations.
The project, estimated to cost around 4.5 billion euros, will be developed in a phased manner to allow anticipating the project benefits and to adjust the investment to available national financing sources and EU financing.
Nowadays there are 17 long distance daily services, per direction, running on the Norte Line along the Porto-Lisbon axis, upon conclusion of Phase 2 the number of daily services will increase to 60, only on the high-speed system. The impact of this change will be tremendous on the passenger demand patterns, with forecasts predicting an increase from the current 6 million annual journeys to around 16 million passengers per annum on this axis. This change will be trigged by a significant modal shift from road and air to rail, which proves the importance of this project to help decarbonising the transport sector and supporting our strategy to meet committed environmental targets.
The new high-speed line between Porto, Valença and Vigo will further strengthen the connectivity along the Atlantic Corridor and boost the commercial links between Portugal and the region of Galicia in Spain. The first phase of this project envisages an important extension of the high-speed corridor to Porto’s airport, reinforcing its centrality and influence in the Peninsular northwest region.

4952 24 October 2022 at 5:18 pm Joaquin Botella MIXED TRAFFIC IN HIGH SPEED LINES – DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS Planning a High-Speed line (Planning a High-Speed line ) MIxed Traffic, Design

Although currently high-speed (HS) railways are almost exclusively associated with passenger services, there is a current trend to increase the efficiency of high-speed lines integrating mixed traffic, in some cases with daytime integration of freight trains, and in others only with night-time traffic.
This means that, not only freight trains, but also commuter or regional trains with different maximum speeds may use the infrastructure with different operations requirements (for example not all trains may not stop in the same stations).
Infrastructure managers wish to encourage the development of new high speed freight markets and do not preclude the possibility that the profitability in such markets would enable them to make an increased or full contribution to all costs.
On the other hand, the hegemonic situation of the exclusive HSL for passenger traffic is being reduced by the most recent projects, as evidenced by the fact that in a large part of the European lines currently under construction or an advanced stage of planning are being designed with mixed traffic parameters.
New HS sections that are necessary to complete the network will need the contribution of other types of traffic to improve its sustainability, such as those that would come from its sharing use with freight transport and commuter traffics or regional trains at lower speeds.
Moreover, Mixed Traffic HS Lines can directly contribute to the decongestion of network sections where there are still significant saturation problems and therefore are limiting the development of rail transport.
All of the above indicates that there may be a growing interest in developing new lines or new sections with mixed traffic and consequently it looks appropriate to study and determine what should be the most accurate conditions under they must be developed and what essential requirements should characterize the implementation of these Mixed Traffic High Speed Lines.
Not allowing the promised 2000 words

4953 26 October 2022 at 10:09 am Frédéric HENON Change of Cultural Mindset of Staff in Railways Service quality (cooperation)(Service quality (cooperation)) cultural change, mindset in railways

Digital and technical innovations, even AI is already here or will soon be in the railway landscape. Railway compagnies will increasingly have to integrate digital technologies into their safety management and other activities.
Indeed, digital technologies and innovations will force railway compagnies to rethink their operating and management methods. As Human play a key role in this process of change, it is important that digital and technical innovations are accompanied by a cultural change to better prepare staff, managers, leaders and decision-makers.

On the cultural issue, the aim is to achieve ” a change in the mentality and cultural practices that dominate and guide the mode of training and apprenticeship of employees” and to “a conception which would make the workplace as the place for learning par excellence”.

To achieve this necessary change of mentality and using a participatory and human-centre approach, we propose to set up a learning/analysis laboratory for cultural change. This lab will be a valuable aid in identifying the elements of employee motivation: in particular, the maturity assessment and the anticipation of employee resistance (emotional needs, design of workstation, remuneration, promotion, recognition, the relationship with the line manager, etc.).

This would be complemented by exchanges of experience and good practice between members, on the theme of new leading cultural practices used in the railway world and in other fields.

Three actions would be able to effect such a cultural change:
• Strengthening the role of operational staff in knowledge management by involving managers ;
• Certifying acquired knowledge and in particular technical knowledge: “establishing a certification system also enables the company’s employees to adopt a culture of competition”;
• Involving and engaging senior managers in training.

The second issue in managing such a major change is employee motivation. It is recommended that a maturity assessment be


Jayne Yeo (ERA), Nora Balfe (Irish Rail), Bernard Penner (Infrabel), Paul Leach (RSSB), Fiona Kenvyn (Metro Trains Melbourne)

Data management (Data management ) organisational and human factors, safety

RAIL HOF (Human and Organisational Factors) is a new global digital platform which has been launched on 18th October 2022 at the IRSC (International Railway Safety Council)
The RAIL HOF digital platform, as a knowledge network, will serve to build resources and contribute to enhancing international cooperation, collaboration and dialogue in the field of railway safety and performance focussing on the integration of HOF.
The UIC HOFWG (Human and Organisational Factors Working Group), jointly with ERA, decided that the RAIL HOF digital platform should offer the following:
• a LinkedIn group to develop the HOF community of experts and increase visibility;
• a website to act as an entry point for all which would then be differentiated to access the appropriate information depending on needs and the level of HOF expertise and experience, and;
• a private area for the members to manage events and create a forum for sharing working documents.
The development of this platform was based on a user-centred approach from the beginning of the project and during the development process. This user-centred approach has been maintained since its launch date as the needs, inputs and feedback of the end-users are taken into account by an editorial team. The platform is therefore evolving and will be enriched by the knowledge and operational experiences of the members.


Isidro Carrascal
Soraya Diego
Israel Sosa
José Adolfo Sainz-Aja

Ballasted track (Ballasted track ) Fastening dynamic behavior, Sand effect

The presence of sand in the track superstructure is an aspect not considered in the current regulations for the control of the dynamic behaviour of high-speed lines, but, as shown in this work, it has an enormous influence and must be taken into account. The study analyses the effect of the presence of sand on the colmatation of the ballast layer and on the support system of the sleeper-rail system. In both cases, the results are remarkable, with an undesired increase in track stiffness and premature wear of components.

In order to study the colmatation of the ballast layer, a box with transparent walls was designed to facilitate visual analysis of the distribution of sand in the ballast, distributed in a layer of 1 m2 surface area and 30 cm thick. The stiffness of the designed track section was determined with static and dynamic tests by applying loads by means of a sleeper coupon on the ballast bed with different levels of sand incorporation to model the dynamic stiffness of the track as a function of the degree of colmatation.

On the other hand, a fine aggregate recirculation and spraying system was developed to analyse the mechanical behaviour of a high-speed fastening system exposed to a simulated pseudo-sand storm. To this end, the EN 13146-4 test was adapted by subjecting the fastening system to a continuous stream of sand, overlapped with the application of 3 million cycles of dynamic loads simulating the passage of the train along the track. It was possible to verify the pernicious effect of the presence of sand on the fastening system, establishing the components of the system that are most sensitive to this phenomenon.


Isidro Carrascal
José Antonio Casado
José Adolfo Sainz-Aja

Ballasted track (Ballasted track ) Fastening dynamic behavior, Temperature effect

Extreme environmental temperatures are aspects not covered by the standards regulating the control of the behaviour of rail fastenings on high-speed lines. However, the climatic conditions in certain geographical locations, mountainous or desert areas, impose variable temperatures from -20 to +70ºC, measured on the components of the railway superstructure which, in most cases, contemplate the use of temperature-sensitive thermoplastic materials.

This study characterises the behaviour of VM type elastic fasteners, commonly used on high-speed lines, which incorporate elastic guide plates injected with glass-fibre reinforced polyamide (PA) and polyethylene propylene rubber (EPDM) rail pads, as high-responsibility elements that electrically insulate the rails, maintain the gauge and mitigate part of the noise and vibrations generated by the passage of trains.

Some of these materials are thermoplastic polymers, which are susceptible to change their properties with service temperature. In this work, it is analized whether the components maintain their functionality under realistic extreme thermal conditions. For this purpose, the test methodology, defined by international standards (EN 13146, EN 13481 and AREMA) which do not contemplate these requirements, has been adapted. A VM-type fastening with a 12 mm thick rail pad has been tested at temperatures of -30, 23, 50 and 70°C. For this purpose, a test chamber was developed which simultaneously allows the temperature to be maintained, loads to be applied at different angles of incidence and the displacements of the rail with respect to the sleeper to be measured. In this way, the essential mechanical parameters of the fastening are determined and compared against the different thermal scenarios: stiffness, clamping force, longitudinal resistance and fatigue behaviour.

The main result shows that the most aggressive temperature is 70°C. In fatigue the guide plates work above their glass transition temperature (55°C) and s

4961 27 October 2022 at 2:53 pm FEDERICO ULIVI ETR 1000: a story of success and forward-looking vision Interoperability (Interoperability ) Homologation process, High-level performance

The most important and innovative high-speed train within the Trenitalia fleet, the ETR 1000 (Frecciarossa 1000), is not just a symbol of excellence in Italy and the world, but also a success story of how technical innovation and a forward-looking vision have allowed Trenitalia to acquire unparalleled experience in the field and foster its international projects.
Such foresight was already visible early on, from the commissioning and planning phase: ETR 1000 – conceived more than 10 years ago – was not only intended to be a technically advanced train aimed at propelling Italian high-speed rail into the future, with performances well above industry standards, but it aspired to be a project with an EU-wide perspective, a platform that would enable Trenitalia to extend its operations abroad.
The trains were therefore built in compliance with the essential requirements of the European Directives on Railway Interoperability and it was decided early on that the constructor would be the promoter of the homologation process.
However, it is not only the EU-wide outlook adopted in 2010 while planning the ETR 1000 that allowed Trenitalia to successfully enter the international market. Thanks to the past seven years the ETR has been in operation, Trenitalia has gained significant experience in identifying how the product can be improved, how it can be made even more reliable and how it can be maintained at its best – in cooperation with the constructor – through the optimization of processes, making the company more then ready to build on that knowledge and use it to ensure successful operations in other Countries.
In conclusion, the experience of ETR 1000 is a remarkable example of how technological innovation and foresight in planning can give companies the right edge to compete at the international level.

4963 28 October 2022 at 6:27 pm Patrícia Ferreira A hybrid numerical model for evaluating railway slab track resiliency under atmospheric actions

Samuel R. Matias

Slab track (Slab track ) hybrid dynamic train/track model (short&longterm), High speed slab track deterioration prediction

Railway slab track infrastructure have been under constant improvement and always raising the bar to cope with high capacity, operational efficiency and resiliency. This paper is the result of a PhD thesis [1] and presents a hybrid and iterative finite element model (HI-Track). A new modelling approach is used through the interaction between two finite element models: a reduced dynamic model (DL-Track) and a nonlinear model (SP-Track) that updates the material properties of the track. Both models can achieve multiple runs, without compromising the computation efficiency, since reduced techniques are used. The train/ track interaction is considered by including a multibody vehicle model.
The proposed hybrid model (DL-Track + SP-Track) simulates several years of track lifetime, and in each cycle, several parameters are updated through the interaction between models. The model can update the concrete slab fatigue and the track settlement through a thermo-hydro-mechanical empirical model, that can include the effect of rainfall events. An extensively validated modelling process is thoroughly assessed to study the long-term effects on slab tracks, mainly with real field test campaigns and test rig trials.
Design recommendations and guidelines are outlined: suggestions on slab track configuration and some track component properties (railpad and USP properties – optimum range values); suggestions upon reinforcement bars inside concrete slab track to improve cracking control; identification of some design limiting factors, such as admissible track settlements, maximum cracking levels (structural health monitoring), among others. Also, the influence of train speed and mixed traffic is assessed. Additionally, the numerical model’s applicability for a maintenance forecast model is achieved to evaluate the geometric correction and concrete crack sealing requirements under certain thresholds.
[1] S.R. Matias, “Modelling railway slab track towards enhanced dynamic performance

4965 28 October 2022 at 7:13 pm Kaoutar El Haji Al Boraq as a pioneering experience for Green Bonds Funding schemes (Funding schemes ) Sustainable & Green Finance, Project & Territorial Development

The Kingdom of Morocco has adopted a high-speed rail master plan to meet the strong growth in traffic and to support the country’s development, with a total of 1500 km crossing the Atlantic and the Maghreb axis. The line between Tangier and Kenitra is the first step in this plan, led by the Moroccan integrated railway company “ONCF”, which contributes to the improvement of the service offer between the cities of Tangier, Kenitra, Rabat and Casablanca.
Among positive impacts of this project, many are related to social, economic and environmental issues – supported by data – such as significant reduction of travel time; improvement of safety by modal report; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution; creation of employment in the construction phase and even in the operation phase; etc.
Moreover, the high-speed train “AL BORAQ” has been running on green energy since January 1st, 2022. This allows offering sustainable transport using 100% wind power, with a vision for ONCF to power all trains with clean energy. The objective of this new phase is to improve ONCF’s carbon footprint, with the equivalent of 120,000 tons of CO2 avoided each year (or about 4 million trees planted).
Based on these positive impacts generated by the high-speed train, especially Social and Environmental ones, this kind of project can use green financing. Therefore, ONCF used green bonds to refinance a debt related to the project. These green bonds, issued by ONCF in July 2022, are fully aligned with the “Low Carbon Land Transport Criteria” of the Climate Bonds Standard as verified by a Second Party Opinion and certified by the Climate Bonds Standard Board.
The presentation will give, through ONCF’s experience, an overview of green finance, the opportunity to use sustainable finance and in particular green bonds, the prerequisites in terms of green certification, as well as the additional related commitments ensuing from this financing mechanism.

4967 31 October 2022 at 11:25 am Amine BENDAOUD Living the digital rail journey, a new traveling experience Traffic management and operations under regular conditions (Traffic management and operations under regular conditions ) Digital railway, IT railway solutions

For a regular passenger, choosing Al Boraq to travel from Tangier to Kenitra is a simple journey of 50 minutes. Yet, it is much more for those who had the experience of being behind the scenes. In fact, managing such a trip is anything but simple: it is a matter of involving several contributors into different situations while maintaining certain conditions and/or constraints.
Fortunately, a main contributor showed up into railway industry, offering several possibilities and making tasks easier. The E which came along to precede all terms in different fields including the railway sector is not just a letter, it is a variant that changed everything.
From the moment a train departs from its station of origin, if not well before, a multitude of IT systems and digital solutions ensure conditions to maintain regular activity. From assignment of rolling stock and until the announcement of arrival through classic operations of regulation, the whole process is fully digitalized. Without forgetting various interactions with other systems which allow maintaining good security conditions, ensuring precise communication with travellers, and tracking every data that can be crucial when a diagnosis is needed for one reason or another.
Nowadays, aligning with technological advance is no longer a choice, especially in a field as sensitive as rail traffic management. It is more than ever necessary to opt for efficient solutions : to gain competitiveness, to maintain a good customer experience, but above all, to ensure everyone’s safety.

4969 31 October 2022 at 3:29 pm Karim Chennouf LGV Maroc : le transfert de compétences réussi Staff training (Staff training ) TRANSFERT DE COMPETENCES, INSTITUT DE FORMATION FERROVIAIRE

L’originalité du programme de transfert de compétences pour le cas de la LGV
Maroc découle de l’approche que l’ONCF et la SNCF ont adopté pour réussir la
préparation des 600 collaborateurs chargés de la mise en exploitation du train Al
Boraq en terme de compétences , de savoir faire et de savoir être.
Ce transfert de compétences , nouveau pour le Maroc , devait être réalisé
conformément au standard international d’exploitation des trains à grande vitesse
et devait permettre à l’ONCF devenir autonome en la matière.
L’approche retenue a été de créer un institut de formation à Rabat (IFF) pour réaliser
cette mission et qui à terme servirait pour le rayonnement du savoir faire ONCF et
SNCF sur le continent africain et à l’international.
Résultats, l’institut ainsi crée a :
➢ Réalisé la formation des 600 collaborateur dans les differents metiers
d’exploitation de la LGV (conduite , maintenance , service…)
➢ Coopté des clients de compagnies ferroviaires d’Afrique et de l’Europe
➢ Integré le réseau d’instituts internationa de formation aux metiers
La presentation ppt revient sur les moment clefs du projet “tarnsfert de
compétences pour la LGV Maroc” comme exemple original de cooperation nord-sud
et sud-sud

4971 1 November 2022 at 10:48 am ZEMRANI Charaf HSR Morocco – A safety success story. In Safety security (In Safety security ) evaluation of safety, operating rules

The objective of the presentation is to share with the audience the conduct of the project, the first of its kind in Morocco, in terms of security.
This will involve discussing the subject from the angles of organization, challenges, difficulties encountered, evaluation of safety files and drafting of operating texts and ending with a summary of feedback on the operation of the line since its commissioning.

4974 1 November 2022 at 2:16 pm HAMZA OURABAH Customer engagement strategy into digital transformation of customer services () Customer engagement, Digital service innovation

– Any other general topic : customer relationship
– Another main sub-topic : customer services
– Any other detailed sub-topic : Digital service innovation

Actually, the digital transformation is an existential goal for organization. In addition, the impact of digital and new communication methods on our daily lives has logically extended to consumer behavior. The customer is accustomed to sharing his opinions on social networks, on his online purchases; the customer is now an integral part of the production chain. Customer engagement refers to the ability of customers to engage with their relationship with a brand, and the interactions that take place between a company and its customers. Therefore, the railway company should take advantage of this relationship to improve its services by staying connected with the traveler throughout their travel experience, and give it the ability to connect, share and come up with various ideas, proposals, action plans and innovations for business development.

4976 2 November 2022 at 12:04 am BOUARIF Tewfik AL BORAQ reinvents a new concept of travel in MOROCCO Service quality (marketing)(Service quality (marketing)) new concept, custmer experience

The presentation will focus on the railway mobility evolution since the launch of AL BORAQ high-speed trains.
The objective is to highlight the several benefits linked to this project and its positive impacts. It’s a new travel concept which is considered and implemented in order to provide -in addition to time-saving- an incredible experience for customers and marking an improvement in the quality of travelling as well:
– Firstly, the new “guaranteed seat system” with the notion of booking that has considerably improved the anticipation of purchases and has enabled customers to better organize their trip and benefit from advantageous fares;
– Secondly, regarding the pricing policy, we will explain the new approach adopted and combined with yield management to provide an optimization and easy accessibility to train according to the new criteria for purchasing travel tickets.
– Thirdly, the customer journey in the station has also been reviewed by creating a new service named “Escale” which – in turn- has facilitated the customer’s stay in the station by enhancing their reception, assistance and orientation services.
– Moreover, the distribution system has been evolved significantly by developing a new concept of sales areas, and boosting digital and local sales
– Furthermore, it’s is a new concept of modern stations, moving from a simple transit point to multifunctional living centers and multimodal hubs, and offering more services and better accessibility.
– Finally, the role of Al Boraq passenger as an ecological traveler with his beneficial contribution in preserving the environment and maintaining a sustainable mobility.

4979 2 November 2022 at 11:08 am ABDERRAHMANE AMAZAL Formation des chefs circulation. De la conception à l’implémentation Staff training (Staff training ) Formation, Chef circulation

L’exploitation de la LGV au Maroc a nécessité la formation des chefs Circulation aux procédures afférentes et leur entraînement à les mettre en pratique.
La présentation a pour objet de décrire, à titre de partage, l’approche adoptée pour la formation et l’entraînement des chefs Circulation pour leur habilitation à exercer sur la LGV.

4981 2 November 2022 at 11:21 am Ouiame TAIMOURI Innovation through High-Speed Rail: Developing Employee Skills to Stay Ahead of the Curve Management of competencies (Management of competencies ) Skills Development, Knowledge Management

As the world becomes increasingly connected, the need for high-speed rail infrastructure becomes more and more apparent. High-speed rail allows for quick and efficient transportation of people and goods, and has the potential to transform the way we live and work. In order to stay ahead of the curve, it is important for employees to be innovative and to continuously develop their skills. The Moroccan National Railways Office is committed to innovation and to developing the skills of its employees.

The successful launch of the LGV AlBoraq high-speed rail line has shown that Morocco has the potential to be a world leader in this field. However, to maintain this position, it is essential that employees have the skills necessary to stay ahead of the curve. The LGV AlBoraq is the first high-speed rail line in Africa, and it has been a resounding success.
The line has transformed the way people travel in Morocco, and has had a positive impact on the economy. The Moroccan National Railways Office has been able to successfully develop and operate the LGV AlBoraq thanks to the innovative spirit of its employees. They have been able to develop the necessary skills to operate and maintain the high-speed rail line, and they have also been able to contribute to the development of the local community. Employees of The Moroccan National Railways Office underwent extensive training to prepare for the opening of the high-speed rail line. The training program included both classroom instruction and on-the-job experience, they learned about the operation of high-speed trains, as well as how to provide excellent customer service. The training program was essential in preparing the employees of Moroccan National Railways for the successful launch of the LGV AlBoraq. It is an example of how investing in employee skills can pay off in terms of innovation and success.

This presentation will focus on different existing training programs, new training initiatives, and the challenges in

4982 2 November 2022 at 11:25 am Ouiame TAIMOURI Well-being at work, a talent retention lever


Management (Management ) Health, Well-being

Building on the success of its TGV between Tangier and Casablanca, inaugurated at the end of 2018, Morocco wants to expand its high-speed rail network and aims to extend the existing line to Marrakech and Agadir. A mega-project considered as one of the priorities of the plan of the Moroccan National Railways Office.

Being aware that the success of such a project requires a strong commitment and that the involvement is the cause of motivation and the consequence of satisfaction, the Moroccan National Railways Office faces new challenges concerning the development of its employees and the satisfaction of its customers. It is part of an approach to improving Health, Safety and Welfare at work by ensuring the implementation of an OHS management system as well as regulatory and legislative compliance in this area.

This approach encompasses several dimensions such as recognition of employees, improvement of working conditions, development of communication, prevention of psychosocial risks, creation of group cohesion and development of team spirit…

All of these aim to guarantee a pleasant working environment for employees, to motivate and retain them and by consequence improve the ONCF’s performance and productivity.

4984 2 November 2022 at 12:14 pm José Estaire Gepp Settlement laws of bed layers in ballasted tracks as determined in 1:1 scale models performed in CEDEX Track Box

Juan-Luis Cámara
María Santana

Ballasted track (Ballasted track ) ballast, permanent settlement

The settlement laws of the different bed layers can be studied in CEDEX Track Box (CTB), a 21 m long, 5 m wide and 4 m deep facility whose main objective is to test, at 1:1 scale, complete railway track sections of conventional and high speed lines for passenger, freight and mixed traffics. It is equipped with a loading system consisting of three pairs of servo-hydraulic cylinders (250 kN of maximum load at a working frequency of 50 Hz) to reproduce the loads imposed by the different trains. This presentation will discuss the results obtained in the tests performed in CTB with: a) different ballast track systems (sleepers and undersleeper pads); b) different train speeds (between 120 and 320 km/h); c) different type of trains (passenger and freight ones) and d) clean and fouled with sand ballast.10 different tests were performed in which 25 different settlement curves were obtained in the ballast layer. The ballast long-term settlements were analyzed. The ballast settlement (sigma) curves were
modeled using a potential expression (sigma= a . Nb), in which “a” represents the permanent settlement in the first cycle and “b” the rate of settlement growth with the number of axle applied.

4987 2 November 2022 at 10:58 pm LARBI OUAJAR MAINTENANCE INFRASTRUCTURE LGV MAROC Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Maintenance, Infrastructure ferroviaire LGV

La disponibilité maximale de la LGV, est le résultat de la réalisation de la maintenance pour l’ensemble de ses constituants.
La présentation sera axée sur
• Les opérations de maintenance des installations infrastructures LGV réalisées
• Organisation de la maintenance
• Les moyens humains, logistiques, matériel mis à disposition
• Les particularités de la LGV M en termes d’environnement et son impact sur l’application de la maintenance conformément au référentiels.
• Sécurité maintenance.
• Opérations particulières de maintenance sur la LGV M.
• Principaux indicateurs de performance (Réalisation).

4988 2 November 2022 at 11:07 pm LARBI OUAJAR Sécurisation des emprises LGV Maroc Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Sécurisation LGV, Clôture LGV

La disponibilité maximale de la LGV, est le résultat de la réalisation de la maintenance pour l’ensemble de ses constituants.
La présentation sera axée sur
• Le système de sécurisation mis en place pour la LGVM
• Le retour d’expérience après exploitation (les types d’intrusions enregistrées);
• Les points faibles du système de sécurisation.
• Le phènomène des oiseaux tamponnés par les RGV.
• Les actions instaurés pour maintenir la sécurisation à son maximum.

4991 3 November 2022 at 9:42 am ALAA EDDINE SEHLI train handling and economical driving () train handling and traction, economical driving

my presentation will concern train handling and traction, high speed production and economical driving

4993 3 November 2022 at 1:08 pm Mohammed Smouni Effect of Moroccan High Speed Rail: An economic catalyst and a boost to mobility Wider socio-economical impacts (Wider socio-economical impacts ) Economic Catalyst, Boost to mobility

Four years after Al Boraq, the first African high-speed train, began its operation, its success has only increased. More than 10 million passengers have trusted it. The operating success is justified by unbeatable journey times, important frequencies, a punctuality approaching 99%, better comfort and high value services at the station and on board.
Furthermore, Al Boraq has an undeniable multidimensional effect as a catalyst for socio-economic dynamics and a symbol of a new era of mobility.
As a boost to mobility, Al Boraq provides concrete answers to travelers’ expectations in terms of:
– Speed: Al boraq significantly reduces travel times between the Kingdom’s major urban centers (Casablanca – Tangier in just 2 hours and 10 minutes).
– Accessibility: Al boraq offers a well-adapted, flexible and accessible pricing for all types of passengers
As an economic catalyst, it should be emphasized that Al boraq serves three economic regions representing 44% of the Moroccan population and generating nearly 60% of the national GDP. Obviously, the benefits of Al Boraq are very important in terms of economic development.
In addition to its positive impact on territorial marketing, its effects cover various registers such as town planning, land and real estate, as well as the economic and tourist attractiveness of the cities concerned.

4995 4 November 2022 at 1:05 pm HASSANI FADOUA Risk Management related to Cybersecurity and Railway Protection against emerging threats (including cyber security) (Protection against emerging threats (including cyber security) ) Cybersecurity, cyber Threat

To support the digital transformations of Moroccan Railways in a sustainable way, a Risk Management of the Industrial Information System carrying its processes (Energy, Signaling & Telecom and Rolling Stock) is essential in order to implement adequate protection measures.
The purpose of this analysis is to identify and describe the threats to the industrial information system of the Moroccan railway company in order to identify the risks inherent in the various functions and elements that compose it.
In order to reduce the likelihood of occurrence of threat scenarios, security measures have been identified to control industrial systems and reduce to a minimum the probability of occurrence of a feared event following a “cyber” scenario. (Physical protection measures, technical security and security measures aimed at implementing procedures, organization, processes, etc.)

4997 5 November 2022 at 7:57 am HICHAM El MESKINI impact de la fiabilité GSMR sur la régularité et les pistes de progrès. ; Mise en exergue de l’avancé technologique de la LGV par rapport la ligne conventionnelle ONCF. Maintenance (signalling)(Maintenance (signalling)) maintenance Signalisation, ERTMS 2

– L’écosystème ferroviaire LGV repose essentiellement sur la fiabilité des installations de télécommunications notamment sur le réseau GSMR.
Les vulnérabilités du réseau GSMR doivent être identifié, analyser et traiter convenablement pour améliorer en conséquence les performances du produit TGV.
– Le produit Signalisation LGV a révolutionné les performances du réseau ferré marocain mais aussi les méthodes de la maintenance.

4998 5 November 2022 at 8:02 am HICHAM El MESKINI impact de la fiabilité GSMR sur la régularité et les pistes de progrès Mise en exergue de l’avancé technologique de la LGV par rapport la ligne conventionnelle ONCF. Telecommunications (Telecommunications ) GSMR, ERTMS 2

L’ecosysteme ferroviaire LGV repose essentiellement sur la fiablité des installations de telecommunications notamment sur le reseau GSMR.
Les vulnarabilités du reseau GSMR doivent etre identifié, analyser et traiter concenablement pour ameliorer en conséquence les performances du produit TGV.

4999 5 November 2022 at 8:12 am HICHAM El MESKINI Mise en exergue de l’avancé technologique de la LGV par rapport la ligne conventionnelle ONCF. Maintenance (signalling)(Maintenance (signalling)) Evolution technologique, Maintenance Signalisation

Le produit Signalisation LGV a révolutionné les performances du réseau ferré marocain mais aussi les méthodes de la maintenance.

5001 7 November 2022 at 10:09 am CHRAIBI AZZEDDINE structure et organisation de la sûreté à l’ONCF Safety versus security (Safety versus security ) sûreté

Abstract :

Security is on the top of the primary services that are expected by train users. It’s considered as a challenge of excellence and a major part of the Moroccan National Railways Office’s corporate strategy. This is why the ONCF, over and above the necessary compliance with legal requirements, has undertaken a continuous process to improve its security policy by integrating upstream the protection of people and property.
This process of continuous improvement of the security policy was initiated in 2013 with the development of the Security Master Plan. It is a tool allowing multi-year planning of security investments. The three major projects that came out of Security Master Plan are:
– Securing sites and trains;
– Creation of the National Security Center;
– Internal reorganization of structures and entities that are dedicated to security for better management of roles and responsibilities.
These projects became operational from 2018 with the bringing into service of the Tangier-Casablanca high-speed line.
Today, operational maturity has been observed at all of these projects.

5003 7 November 2022 at 11:07 am FERNANDES BORGES LUCIANO Moroccan High Speed Train ‘Alboraq’ Maintenance : Which policy for which results ? In rolling stock (In rolling stock ) Maintenance Strategy, Maintenance Implementation

Moroccan High Speed Train ‘Alboraq’ Train Maintenance : Which policy for which results ?

PART 1 : The policy explained in 4 steps

A policy based on a strategic “sourcing” approach combined with an adapted partnership which allows to both build a comprehensive Maintenance System in a fast way and offer rooms for innovation and agility

STEP 1 : A strategic sourcing based on
– proven in use ‘state of the art’ technology
– strong engineering focus in gaps with reference baseline through ILS, Reliability and Safety methodologies

STEP2 : A balanced partnership (through JV scheme) based on accelerating the learning curve and mid term “full knowledge” transfer

STEP 3 : A global, anticipated and systemic Maintenance approach – through some features :
– From reliability testing to maintenance
– From maintenance to fleet operational reliability improvement
– Supply chain : spares sourcing and spares repair, initiation of local industrial ecosystem development
– the Human Resources challenge : learning, skills and turnover management in a competitive environment
– A steering of the operational organisation through a full ‘Client Focus’

STEP 4: An early focus on Innovation and Maintenance Engineering to create a “learning and agile organisation”:
– Asset Management System: a progressive implementation to allow in depth process understanding and improvement
– IA and IoT apps program launch : Remote Diagnosis, Connected Glasses, Failure Identification, Shared Apps with Commercial …

PART 2 : Results & Perspectives

The up to date results (operational performance, economic performance, …) and perspective

5005 7 November 2022 at 1:22 pm Mohamed SEDKI Estimation et caractérisation de l’usure de la bande de captage d’un pantographe

Imad Atraoui
Mohamed Sedki
Adnane Boukamel
Mohammed El Rhabi
Abdelhalim Naciri
Luciano Fernandes BORGES

In rolling stock (In rolling stock ) Pantographe, Archet, usure, Traitement d’mage, Réseaux de neurones, IA

Ce projet repose sur l’automatisation de l’opération de détection des défauts de la bande d’archet d’un pantographe d’un matériel ferroviaire électrique en incluant l’identification du niveau d’usure et la prévision de son évolution dans le temps. La première phase du projet consiste d’abord à développer un prototype permettant d’identifier le profil de la bande d’archet, basé sur une technique de traitement d’images d’une part, et sur l’utilisation d’un algorithme de réseau de neurones CNNs, d’autre part. Ce prototype permet la détection et la classification des défauts, sur la bande de contact, et également l’estimation de son niveau d’usure. L’algorithme de cette classification a été implémenté à l’aide de la bibliothèque « Tensorflow » qui facilite le développement des réseaux de neurones en se basant sur un algorithme de réseau de neurones CNN avec une architecture TinyVGG .
L’algorithme permettant l’estimation de l’usure a été développé à l’aide de la bibliothèque openCV (vision assistée par ordinateur) qui permet le traitement des données d’images.
La deuxième partie du projet, permettra la prédiction de l’évolution du degré d’usure, en se reposant sur outil industriel d’acquisition de données (images de défauts) et un développement spécifique pour la prédiction de défaut.
Ce prototype a été testé sur une base de données comportant des images de défauts de bandes d’archets. Les résultats obtenus sont encourageant et montrent une précision de 88% sur la classification des défauts avec une erreur de moins de 2mm sur l’épaisseur de la bande pour l’estimation d’usure.

5006 7 November 2022 at 1:35 pm Mohamed SEDKI Diagnostic et pronostic des défauts de roulement d’essieu des trains à grande vitesse par utilisation du signal acoustique et des méthodes de traitement de signal avancées

Khalid Dahi
Mohammed El Rhabi
Adnane Boukamel
Mohamed Sedki
Luciano Fernandes Borges

In rolling stock (In rolling stock ) Roulement, essieux, acoustique

Les roulements des boîtes d’essieux sont l’un des composants mécaniques les plus critiques du matériel roulant ferroviaire et en particulier les rames à grande vitesse. Ces composants, soumis à des utilisations constantes et récurrentes, finissent par faiblir, vieillir et devenir défaillants à cause de l’apparition de défauts. Ces défauts peuvent entraîner l’immobilisation immédiate du matériel, impacter l’exploitation ferroviaire et générer des surcoûts de maintenance.
Depuis plusieurs années, les exploitants et constructeurs ferroviaires se sont mobilisés pour l’amélioration de la maintenance et de la surveillance de l’état du système roulant afin de réduire la probabilité de défaillance.
Les systèmes actuels basés sur les détecteurs de boîtes chaudes et les signaux vibratoires présentent des limites de détection de défaillance prématurée des roulements des boites d’essieux. Une autre alternative est l’utilisation du signal acoustique. En effet, le signal acoustique fournit un meilleur diagnostic que l’analyse des vibrations en termes de capacité de détection précoce des défauts, de rapport signal/bruit des défauts et de capacité de détection des défauts combinés. Cet article présente une architecture pour l’instrumentation d’un banc acoustique pour la détection des défauts de roulements dans les essieux des rames à grande vitesse. L’architecture proposée repose sur un couplage entre l’ étude du phénomène mécanique (modélisation du phénomène physique pour prévoir la durée de vie) et des méthodes de détection reposant sur l’analyse et le traitement des signaux issus des capteurs (séparation de sources, analyse cyclo stationnaire, …) pour la détection prédictive des défauts de roulements. L’objectif escompté est la mise en place de véritables indicateurs de niveaux de dégradation permettant un suivi du taux d’endommagement des composants impliqués.

5008 7 November 2022 at 1:44 pm Mohamed SEDKI La vision par ordinateur pour une Maintenance Intelligente (Cas de Alboraq)

Karima Jadda
Mohamed Benaija
Mohamed Sedki
Abdelhalim Naciri
Luciano Fernandes Borges

In rolling stock (In rolling stock ) Vision par ordinateur, Reseaux de neuronnes

Saviez-vous qu’une grande part des opérations de maintenance sont des inspections, plus précisément des inspections visuelles ? Tous les mainteneurs ou propriétaires d’actifs doivent effectuer ces opérations qui sont chronophages, nécessitent une allocation importante de ressources humaines, outre que ces opérations peuvent se dérouler dans des environnements dangereux, et surtout la présence d’erreur humaine due à l’oubli ou à la répétition générée par la récurrence de ces opérations.
Face à tous ces faits et constats, l’équipe SIANA a exploré le sujet de l’inspection visuelle afin de mieux comprendre ces situations qui concernent tout le monde dans les secteurs industriels, en particulier pour nous dans l’industrie ferroviaire.
La vision par ordinateur utilise des technologies d’intelligence artificielle pour détecter automatiquement les composants défectueux. Cette technologie « augmente » les techniciens et opérateurs de maintenance au niveau des sites industriel.
A titre d’expérimentation nous avons développé “SAFaE” qui est un boitier contenant une solution basée sur la vision par ordinateur qui est une intelligence artificielle embarquée permettant d’automatiser l’inspection visuelle des actifs ainsi la rendre fiable et rapide pour les mainteneurs et opérateurs d’actifs.

5009 7 November 2022 at 1:44 pm Mohamed NAJI Skills management at SIANA: From project mode to operational mode… What prospects?


Management of competencies (Management of competencies ) Competence, Management

While competence is an essential concept in the management of human capital, its deployment within organizations and its integration into HR practices is still an evolving sphere. The management of skills or the competence approach is an approach that places the company in a dynamic of development. Competence approach is related to instrumentation. Indeed, we can distinguish between different tools of management job-competence namely the mapping of skills, matrix of versatility, definitions of functions, repository of missions and many other tools.
Competency management has always been the subject of a wide variety of practices: depending on the size, configuration and challenges of the company:
The skills management strategy at SIANA was born a few years before the launching of High-Speed line by the project approach (For the launch), and then by the return on experience (REX) approach in order to guarantee an operation that meets the expectations of the customer.

5010 7 November 2022 at 1:47 pm Mohamed SEDKI Diagnostic et pronostic des défauts de roulement d’essieu des trains à grande vitesse par utilisation du signal acoustique et des méthodes de traitement de signal avancées

Khalid Dahi
Mohammed El Rhabi
Adnane Boukamel
Mohamed Sedki
Abdelhalim Naciri
Luciano Fernandes Borges

In rolling stock (In rolling stock ) Roulement, essieux, acoustiquen, instrumentation

Les roulements des boîtes d’essieux sont l’un des composants mécaniques les plus critiques du matériel roulant ferroviaire et en particulier les rames à grande vitesse. Ces composants, soumis à des utilisations constantes et récurrentes, finissent par faiblir, vieillir et devenir défaillants à cause de l’apparition de défauts. Ces défauts peuvent entraîner l’immobilisation immédiate du matériel, impacter l’exploitation ferroviaire et générer des surcoûts de maintenance.
Depuis plusieurs années, les exploitants et constructeurs ferroviaires se sont mobilisés pour l’amélioration de la maintenance et de la surveillance de l’état du système roulant afin de réduire la probabilité de défaillance.
Les systèmes actuels basés sur les détecteurs de boîtes chaudes et les signaux vibratoires présentent des limites de détection de défaillance prématurée des roulements des boites d’essieux. Une autre alternative est l’utilisation du signal acoustique. En effet, le signal acoustique fournit un meilleur diagnostic que l’analyse des vibrations en termes de capacité de détection précoce des défauts, de rapport signal/bruit des défauts et de capacité de détection des défauts combinés. Cet article présente une architecture pour l’instrumentation d’un banc acoustique pour la détection des défauts de roulements dans les essieux des rames à grande vitesse. L’architecture proposée repose sur un couplage entre l’ étude du phénomène mécanique (modélisation du phénomène physique pour prévoir la durée de vie) et des méthodes de détection reposant sur l’analyse et le traitement des signaux issus des capteurs (séparation de sources, analyse cyclo stationnaire, …) pour la détection prédictive des défauts de roulements. L’objectif escompté est la mise en place de véritables indicateurs de niveaux de dégradation permettant un suivi du taux d’endommagement des composants impliqués.

5012 7 November 2022 at 2:28 pm BENARBIA ABDERRAHIM Kinetic Thermal Degradation and Biodegradation of New Green Composite and Polycaprolactone : comparative study Waste and use of natural resources  (Waste and use of natural resources  ) Biodegradation Phenomenon, Thermal Degradation, Penicillium, Activation Energy, cellulose, PCL, PBS.

BenarbiaAbderrahim a c*, ElidrissiAbderrahman a,AsehraouAbdeslam b, BellaouchiReda b,

a LCAE-URAC18: Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment- Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed Premier University – Oujda, Morocco
b Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed Premier University, Oujda, Morocco
c Office National des Chemins de Fer

Thème général: Mobilité durable

Polycaprolactone is biodegradable polymer material from fossil, non toxic,semi-crystalline, hydrophobic with a relatively polar ester group and five non-polarmethylene groups in its repeating unit, which has gained much attention as ideal material for applications in various fields like agriculture, medicine, pharmacy, packaging andalso in construction and railway industry as polycaprolactonematerial or mixture as polyurethane.
The aim of this study is to prepare a material from renewable resources with same thermal and the biodegradable properties of the polycaprolactone material. The new material obtained via mixing natural polymers(cellulose (80%) + PBS (20%)), is a material having ecofriendly attributes and minimizing the generation of pollution. Application of this study results in Railway industry field would help improving recyclability and recoverability efficiency. Further development can orient revision of standards such as UIC leaflet 345 “Environmental Specifications for New Rolling Stock” and End-of-Life rolling stock (ELRS) works handled by UNIFE.

5015 7 November 2022 at 3:20 pm Marcel Ujfalusi Design of high speed wheelset with optimised TLCC

Pavel Kufa, BONATRANS GROUP a.s.
Petr Kucharczyk, BONATRANS GROUP a.s.
Petr Janoš, BONATRANS GROUP a.s.

Accessibility, design and comfort (Accessibility, design and comfort ) wheelset, axle

The paper deals with design of high speed wheelsets. Main attention is given to enhanced quality parameters and possibility of reduction of wheelset´s Total Life Cycle Costs (TLCC). Improved steels grades, special technology of axle heat treatment, noise reduction dampers and coating system for class 1 are presented. Improved steels grades are introduced as BONASTAR family of solutions, focused on higher wearing resistance. Special technology of axle heat treatment, innovated induction hardening called BONAXLE, are developed from perspectives of design, technology and homologation of wheelset. Noise reduction dampers BONASILENCE are presented in full applicable range as multi-segment dampers, plate dampers and ring dampers. Developments in mentioned products are also described in presentation. References (applications of wheelsets in high speed trains) with global imprint are presented, such as ICE 3, ICE 4, TGV RGV2N2, CRH3.

5017 7 November 2022 at 3:43 pm Kenza BEN ABDERRAZIK L’importance de la planification et les méthodes pour accroitre la fiabilité, la disponibilité et la Maintenabilité du Matériel ferroviaire

M Abdelhalim NACIRI

RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) (RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) ) planification, gamme de maintenance

La maintenance préventive et corrective du Matériel roulant ferroviaire, à l’instar des Rames à Grande Vitesse Maroc, permet d’entretenir ou rétablir un état de bon fonctionnement des différents équipements et systèmes d’un matériel roulant afin d’assurer le plan de transport avec les exigences de fiabilité, de disponibilité, de sécurité d’exploitation ferroviaire et de confort des passagers.
La planification de la maintenance a pour but d’organiser à l’avance les différentes activités afin de satisfaire plusieurs objectifs, tels que :
– Le respect des butées de maintenance,
– L’optimisation les cycles de maintenance,
– Le Lissage et la massification des opérations,
– Le respect des capacités de production.
La planification se fait sur différents horizons (stratégique, tactique et opérationnel) afin de garantir une gestion optimale de la flotte, de maximiser la disponibilité du parc et offrir ainsi une flexibilité dans la gestion du plan de transport.
La maintenance préventive sur un matériel roulant repose sur un ensemble d’opérations à réaliser avec des différentes périodicités. Afin de garantir un standard de travail, il est nécessaire de définir les gammes de maintenance en s’appuyant sur le principe des 5M (Milieu, Main d’œuvre, Méthodes, Matières et Moyens).
Cette standardisation permet :
– D’assurer une constance des réglages et d’améliorer ainsi la fiabilité des systèmes,
– De dimensionner la MOD nécessaire à la réalisation des opérations de maintenance,
– De définir l’approvisionnement nécessaire en pièces de rechange.

Mots clés :
Planification, maintenance, rame, Plan de Transport, disponibilité, fiabilité, gamme de maintenance, 5M, standardisation, optimiser

5018 7 November 2022 at 4:12 pm Mohamed SEDKI Vers une maintenance une maintenance prédictive en analysant les données des systèmes embarqués des trains : Cas AIIRGVM

Mohamed SEDKI
Karima JADDA
Mehdi KACI
Abdelhalim Naciri
Luciano Fernandes Borges

In rolling stock (In rolling stock ) Analyse des données, maintenance predictive, surveillance de l’etat, machine learning, systeme embarqué

Les rames à grande vitesse Maroc (Al boraq) sont équipées d’un SIE ou système informatique embarqué qui surveille en permanence leur état. Durant leur exploitation les RGVM’s produisent un nombre important de donnée qui, au regard de leur masse, sont difficilement exploitable par les techniciens et ingénieurs lors du suivi réguliers de l’état des RGVM ou pour les analyses a posteriori lors des incidents.
Afin d’adresser une solution a cet enjeu d’analyse de donnée nous avons mis en place la plateforme dénommée « AIIRGVM » articulée autour de trois modules principaux :
DecoDAIIR pour le décodage des données reçues des RGVM’s et l’affichage des évènements accompagnés par les détails du contexte d’apparition de chaque défaut, VisuAIIR pour visualiser les données, les analyser ainsi que la génération des rapports métiers pour chaque spécialité au niveau de la maintenance et ingénierie, enfin PredAIIR en se basant sur les modèles de machine Learning et les règles métier pour la mise en place d’un système expert d’aller vers une maintenance prédictive.
La plateforme « AIIRGVM » est construite en se basant sur les framework open source à l’état de l’art pour les sciences des données NumPy; Pandas, Streamlit et enfin Pycaret.

5019 7 November 2022 at 4:26 pm Hicham EL KIMI Development and testing of a new mode of maintenance and surface protection of GV axles

Hicham EL KIMI
Abdelhalim NACIRI
Mourad DAHBI

RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) (RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) ) Axle surface treatment, magnetocropy

The first run of high-speed trains (320km) in Africa was operated in Morocco from November 2018.
Although the axle surface treatments are approved for all climatic and environmental conditions covering the specificities of the high-speed line in Morocco, from 2020 the maintenance teams noticed paint and oxidation detachments which greatly exceed the rate of usual detection following application of the preventive check on this part.
To deal with this unprecedented situation on the technical and operational level and which goes beyond the scope of the consistency of maintenance applied in similar networks, the ALBORAQ maintenance teams carried out an exhaustive report of the fleet of axles with a categorization of the report in 2 families, in addition to the magnetic particle expertise of two axles of the two families:

1. Dot peeling paint
2. Peeling paint in pieces

The Expertise of the two cases revealed that the risk on railway operation is controlled by the insurance of the absence of microcracks on the two axles presenting the most advanced stages in terms of paint and oxidation/corrosion detachment.
However, the following action plan has been undertaken:
• Magnetic particle inspection under vehicle (development of an operating mode specific to this case)
• Renewal of this check every 100,000 km.
• Removal of all the axles of family 2 and total recovery of the surface coating (suspicions of poor workmanship in the original paint).
For family 1, and according to the aerodynamic study of the trains and the locations of the heavily impacted axles, it has been established that this is an abrasion phenomenon accentuated by the dusty composition of the air around the high-speed line.
To combat this unavoidable situation, another mode of surface protection has been redesigned:
• Application of an additional protective layer over the paint which will resist abrasion while ensuring the ability of the maintenance teams to remove it to carry out their checks (

5021 7 November 2022 at 4:54 pm Mohamed SEDKI Avec la vision par ordinateur, une nouvelle façon d’imaginer le futur de la protection automatique des trains

Mohamed Sedki
El Mehdi Benqassmi
Karima Jadda
Mohammed Benaija
Abdelhalim Naciri
Luciano Fernandes Borges

In rolling stock (In rolling stock ) Vision par ordinateur, Protection automatique des trains, ETCS, ERTMS, Yolo, deeplearing, machine learning

A l’heure actuelle, la vision par ordinateur est incontournable dans le paysage de la transformation industrielle, notamment dans la transition vers l’Industrie 4.0, qu’elle soit basée sur des modèles de machine learning ou de deep learning, les possibilités et opportunités d’intégration de cette brique technologique sont infinies.
Dans le contexte de l’industrie ferroviaire, en plus du cas d’utilisation classique où la vision par ordinateur est intuitivement applicable notamment l’inspection visuelle, il devient pertinent de repenser la protection automatique des trains à mesure que les solutions et les architectures de vision par ordinateur arrivent à maturité, plus précisément pour le cas de la lecture de la signalisation latérale dans le cadre de l’ATP.
Dans notre article nous détaillons les enjeux de la protection automatique des trains et les défis d’intégration des systèmes type ERTMS en sa composante d’ETCS, ensuite nous proposons une architecture-concept à l’état de l’art de la vision par ordinateur basées l’architecture « Yolo » et la bibliothèque « OpenCV » pour l’indentification et interprétation des signaux avec une proposition des possibilités d’intégration avec le matériel roulant afin de veiller au respect des signaux et assurer la protection du train.

5023 7 November 2022 at 9:49 pm MOHAMED EL KARDOUDI Degradation of wheel/rail adhesion – Adaptive Wheel Slide Protection:

Matteo FREA : WABTEC, Piossasco, Italie

Adaptation of the railway to future climate conditions (Adaptation of the railway to future climate conditions ) Wheel, rail, jamming, contact, grip, braking system, Faults, stopping distance, rail transport, flat, axle, Emergency brake.

This project focuses on improving wheel/rail adhesion, recognized as a major difficulty for rail transport.
Improving the braking distance in the event of degraded grip and extending the life of the wheels has a direct positive impact on the efficiency of the networks and the performance of the operators.

In a first part of the work, we propose to define the concept of wheel / rail adhesion and to determine the parameters that affect this contact as well as the damage resulting from a deterioration of adhesion in the case of the ONCF.

In Part two, we’ll share a state-of-the-art integrated solution designed to reduce stopping distance through an algorithm-based adaptive wheel slide protection system that continuously adapts to actual grip conditions to limit the effect adhesion degradation and axle lock.

5024 8 November 2022 at 7:44 am Omar Demmoun Façonner une vision et une culture autour d’un projet d’entreprise : Itkane 4.0, un Programme d’Excellence Industrielle

Abdelhalim NACIRI

Management (Management ) Excellence Industrielle, Performance au service du client

• Le Programme d’Excellence Industrielle ITKANE 4.0 est une démarche qui vise à porter l’entreprise à un niveau de maturité lui permettant de réaliser ses projets et mettre en œuvre sa vision
• L’Excellence Industrielle est l’ensemble des pratiques, des règles et des outils nécessaires à l’atteinte des objectifs de performance quotidiens au service de nos clients
• ITKANE 4.0 vise l’excellence opérationnelle, l’amélioration continue et la maîtrise des volets: Qualité, Sécurité de l’Exploitation Ferroviaire, Sécurité et Santé de Travail et l’Environnement tout en stimulant l’Innovation et la Transformation Digital
• ITKANE 4.0 est construit sur 6 piliers

5026 8 November 2022 at 10:20 am IMANE KHALLOUKI Using imagery data, LiDAR and AI for a smart Railway territory Network planning and development (Network planning and development ) GIS, AI

Collecting immersive panoramic HD views by using a 360° camera connected to GPS fixed in a train or an engine will contribute to a better analysis and knowledge of the assets.
These data (images, point clouds …) will constitute a real repository (measurements, updates, calculations, controls, visualization, information, etc.) without moving on the ground.
Artificial intelligence models for automatic detection of infrastructure and public equipment will generate analytical data and make it possible to build diagnostics and inventories directly exploitable within GIS Plateform and dashboards

5027 9 November 2022 at 10:16 pm MOHAMED EL KARDOUDI Enhanced systems for wheel-rail adhesion management and recovery

Matteo Frea. Company: Wabtec

Functional & technical specifications (Functional & technical specifications ) Adhesion / Wheel slide protection, Life cycle cost

The challenge:
Adverse weather conditions, pollution, leaves, rust on track have a negative impact on the wheel-rail adhesion of railway transport systems, jeopardizing safety (extended braking distances) and maintenance cost (wheel flats).
The bottleneck is represented by the state-of-art adhesion management means, particularly the wheel slide protection systems (WSP). The control algorithms of traditional WSP are generally based on permanent tuning parameters such as PID, Fuzzy Logic, etc… designed with a pre-mapped set of parameters.
The Wheel Slide Protection (WSP) system is today a key function in railway rolling stock. Better performance is constantly expected for rail systems, which has led to an increase in vehicle performance (used speeds, acceleration, and deceleration capabilities) in order to enable better integration into traffic flow, shortening train headway increasing the line capacity.

The solution:
This paper introduces Wabtec’s most recent achievements in this area, the result of continuous work both in the lab, using high-performance HIL facilities, and on-field.
The DistanceMastertm is the Wabtec’s solution for adhesion recovery including following pillars:
1. Adaptive WSP (A-WSP)
2. Deceleration compensation (DM-Control): optimized re-distribution of braking effort to maximize achieved adhesion at train level
3. Smart sanding: enhance the available adhesion minimizing the sand consumption

5029 10 November 2022 at 8:15 am Matteo Frea Brake system advanced architecture for High-Speed Trains Functional & technical specifications (Functional & technical specifications ) High speed train architecture, Life cycle cost

The brake system architecture for a high-speed train is traditionally based on the UIC double-pipe platform with the suitable addons required to fulfil the requirements of the EN 15734-1, the European standard describing the functionalities, constraints, performance and operation of a brake system for use in high-speed trains according to TSI.
Specific requirements of the high-speed segment are the:

o WRM (wheel rotation monitoring) function according to EN15595. This function must be implemented by an electronic control unit that is independent from the unit controlling the wheel slide protection (WSP) system
o Multi-stage valve: the limitation of the braking force to the available wheel-rail adhesion according to the speed range

The resulting brake system architecture includes, traditionally, a brake panel, a control unit dedicated to brake control, a control unit dedicated to WSP and a complex network of electrical & pneumatic connections.
The scope of this article is to introduce an innovative brake control solution, suitable for high-speed train application. The proposed high level of integration simplifies the architectural layout guaranteeing enhanced level of performances and safety thanks to native SIL4 certified electronic/software functions replacing the traditional pneumatic brake components. The proposed solution offers several advantages in terms of performances and benefits:
• improved repeatability of braking distance during Emergency brake
• use of Electrodynamic brake in Emergency braking, under SIL4 protection, resulting in a possible reduction on number of discs per axle
• weight saving on brake control equipment up to 50 Kg/car, combined with a drastic simplification of pneumatic pipes
• reduction of train wires, related to the brake system, up to -70%

• reduction of ownership cost (TCO) around 45%
o reduced life cycle cost (LCC)
o energy saving
o simplified maintenance
o compatibility with advanced signalling system (e.g., ETCS level 3)

5033 18 November 2022 at 2:14 am Chenkun Jin BIM Technologies Research and Application on High-Speed Railway Infrastructure All Life Cycle Management

Tongjun Wang
Ping Li

Information management & digital engineering BIM (Information management & digital engineering BIM ) BIM, All Life Cycle

This paper proposes a technical route for data delivery and fusion transmission based on BIM and a technical scheme for construction drawing review based on BIM, and designs a multi-professional and multi-element collaborative design platform based on BIM, which improves the multi-party collaborative efficiency in the design stage and improves the delivery efficiency of construction drawing data.
BIM-based progress tracking and optimization technology is proposed for progress management research, and key technologies such as tunnel section quality detection, bridge virtual assembly, and three-dimensional technical disclosure are studied based on BIM technology to improve quality management , and BIM-based safety risk source management and BIM-based geological prediction management technology are researched for safety management.
The spatiotemporal model and intelligent operation and maintenance technology of high-speed rail infrastructure based on BIM+GIS are studied, and the BIM model, equipment constitutive model, and dynamic detection, fixed monitoring, and static inspection data of infrastructure are integrated to realize the integrated collaborative analysis of the state of high-speed rail infrastructure equipment. Improve the efficiency of infrastructure O&M management.
Above technologies were deployed in the Beijing-Zhangjiakou high-speed railway(main infrastructure for Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics Games), which preliminarily verified the role of BIM technology in the whole life cycle management of high-speed railway infrastructure. Through the use of BIM technology, the management level of high-speed railway infrastructure all life cycle is improved.

5035 18 November 2022 at 8:45 am DONG IL SUNG Verification and Commercialization of Railway-Dedicated LTE-R Based Wireless Communication Network Technology for the National Rail Network of the Republic of Korea Telecommunications (Telecommunications ) ETCS, KTCS

Research work

Ø Development of Korean train control system (KTCS-2)
● Prepare standards for LTE-R based train control system
– Basic requirements of a train control system (safety, performance, functions)
– On-board Unit (OBU) requirements: System structure, operating mode, speed monitoring and train control commands, etc.
– Trackside equipment requirements: movement authority generation, interface between trackside equipment
– Standardised interfacing of train control system’s subsystems
– Defining rules for transmission of wireless TCS messages
● Simulation test and field test using European certified equipment manufactured by Multitel
– Testing standards: ETCS specifications (Subset-076*)
– Specified test scenarios (11 scenarios with 49 test cases and 98 test sequences), test items, test procedures and methods in the testing procedures
● Field test conducted using testing model of high speed train (HEMU-430X) and diesel locomotive

Ø Development of next generation Korean train control system (KTCS-3)
● Develop core technology based on ETCS Level 3 that does not require track circuits
– Prepare development specifications that takes functional and performance requirements into account
– Design and manufacture a prototype of ETCS Level 3

Ø Standardization of train control system on the national rail network and reduced construction/maintenance costs.
Ø Safety of train operations enhanced through transmissions of train control data in real time.
Ø Localization of train control system technology makes use of domestic equipment (cab equipment) and therefore reduced equipment purchasing costs.
Ø Application of KTCS-2 is expected to stimulate the railway industry in Korea and secure Korean railway industry’s competitiveness (project track record, etc.) in global

5036 18 November 2022 at 8:49 am DONG IL SUNG Verification and Commercialization of Railway-Dedicated LTE-R Based Wireless Communication Network Technology for the National Rail Network of the Republic of Korea Telecommunications (Telecommunications ) ETCS, LTE-R

Research work

Ø Development of Korean train control system (KTCS-2) and telecommunications network
● Standardize (TTA standard) functional and performance requirements of 4G technology for application in railways.
● Prepare design standards for application in railway construction projects.
● Develop a system that interlocks all telecommunications networks using different technologies in use currently into a single network.
● Develop cab and mobile telecommunications equipment.

Ø Development of next generation telecommunication technology for KTCS-3
● Develop optimum technology for enhancing handover performance in order to increase accuracy of detection of trains running at high speeds without using
track circuits.

Ø Integration of 3 wireless systems (VHF, TRS-Astro and TETRA).
Ø Delivery of intelligent railway services for rail infrastructure management, safety management and disaster response made possible by transmissions of high volume
data traffic.
Ø Development of LTE-based railway telecommunications system lays foundation for exporting to the global market.

5037 18 November 2022 at 8:52 am DONG IL SUNG Standardization and Localization of Wireless Communication Based ETCS Levels 2 & 3 for Application on the National Rail Network of the Republic of Korea Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) (Signalling (ERTMS, CTCS…) ) ETCS, KTCS

Ø Development of Korean train control system (KTCS-2)
● Prepare standards for LTE-R based train control system
– Basic requirements of a train control system (safety, performance, functions)
– On-board Unit (OBU) requirements: System structure, operating mode, speed monitoring and train control commands, etc.
– Trackside equipment requirements: movement authority generation, interface between trackside equipment
– Standardised interfacing of train control system’s subsystems
– Defining rules for transmission of wireless TCS messages
● Simulation test and field test using European certified equipment manufactured by Multitel
– Testing standards: ETCS specifications (Subset-076*)
– Specified test scenarios (11 scenarios with 49 test cases and 98 test sequences), test items, test procedures and methods in the testing procedures
● Field test conducted using testing model of high speed train (HEMU-430X) and diesel locomotive

Ø Development of next generation Korean train control system (KTCS-3)
● Develop core technology based on ETCS Level 3 that does not require track circuits
– Prepare development specifications that takes functional and performance requirements into account
– Design and manufacture a prototype of ETCS Level 3

Ø Standardization of train control system on the national rail network and reduced construction/maintenance costs.
Ø Safety of train operations enhanced through transmissions of train control data in real time.
Ø Localization of train control system technology makes use of domestic equipment (cab equipment) and therefore reduced equipment purchasing costs.
Ø Application of KTCS-2 on the national rail network is expected to stimulate the railway industry in Korea and secure Korean railway industry’s competitiveness (project track record, etc.) in global market.

5040 20 November 2022 at 7:11 pm Zakaria BAKKALI Train Maintenance responsible Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Islam2022@, Islam2022@


5045 29 November 2022 at 3:16 pm NACERA BECHARI ONCF services to facilitate the customer journey and enrich the travel experience. Service quality (marketing)(Service quality (marketing)) sales and information channels, intermodality,, catering, lounge

The presentation consists of giving a general idea of the different services developed to facilitate passenger mobility and make the customer journey as simple as possible.

5047 29 November 2022 at 5:20 pm Boutaina Benchekroun Climate Finance Funding schemes (Funding schemes ) Climate

Climate finance in the frame of renewable energy developments.

5048 29 November 2022 at 5:22 pm Boutaina Benchekroun IPPs in renewable energies

Jalila Abdellaoui

Project architecture (Public ownership, PPP, Franchises, etc.) (Project architecture (Public ownership, PPP, Franchises, etc.) ) IPP

IPPs in the frame of renewable energies

5050 30 November 2022 at 3:45 pm Said Chandid La grande vitesse ferroviaire au Maroc : quelles perspectives de développement ? Wider socio-economical impacts (Wider socio-economical impacts ) développement du réseau ferré marocain, performances et retombées de la construction de la ligne à grande vitesse

Dans le cadre de développement du réseau ferré marocain, un schéma directeur de lignes à grande vitesse a été conçu ayant conclu à la construction d’un réseau d’une longueur de 1500 km composé de deux grands axes ferroviaires :
– Une ligne «Atlantique » Tanger – Agadir partant de Tanger et passant par Rabat, Casablanca, et Marrakech pour desservir Agadir, revêtant une importance capitale pour le développement socio-économique et le rayonnement régional ;
– Une ligne «Maghrébine » Casablanca – Rabat – Oujda et qui se prolongera jusqu’à Alger, Tunis et Tripoli dans le cadre du futur réseau à grande vitesse maghrébin.
Ce schéma a pour objectif de répondre à l’évolution de la mobilité au sein de notre pays avec des retombées significatives sur la Collectivité en termes de sécurité, de création d’emploi et de préservation de l’environnement.
Il s’agit lors de cette intervention de présenter, la stratégie de développement de l’ONCF, les performances et retombées de la construction de la ligne à grande vitesse reliant Tanger à Kenitra constituant la première étape de la réalisation progressive du schéma directeur puis les perspectives de développement ainsi que les retombées attendues.

5052 2 December 2022 at 8:35 am laalj mohammed APPEL DE RABAT dénommé ’African green deal ferroviaire pour une mobilité durable’. New expectations (New expectations ) Appel de Rabat-Green deal ferroviaire-Agenda 2063 de l’UA-, Développement- Réseau ferré à GV-Ecomobilité-ODD 2030

Le 11ème Congrès UIC de la Grande Vitesse constitue une occasion pour élargir cet l’Appel de Rabat- ’African green deal ferroviaire pour une mobilité durable’ dans le cadre de la nouvelle stratégie ‘Africa Rail 2063’,comme déclinaison de l’Agenda 2063 de l’Union Africaine.
Selon cette stratégie, il est prévu de développer un réseau ferré intégré à grande vitesse qui reliera les capitales africaines entre elles, ainsi qu’avec les pôles économiques et industriels et les principaux sites touristiques .

5055 5 December 2022 at 9:53 am Qachar Mohamed Plan Rail et Plan Route : Pour une bonne connectivité terrestre du territoire Network planning (Network planning ) Connectivité routière, connectivité ferroviaire

Présenter le plan route 2040 et le plan rail 2040 et leur rôle à assurer une bonne connectivité des différents territoires marocains

5057 5 December 2022 at 2:14 pm Elias Lazar Treatment of Surface Rail Defects by using Linsinger’s Milling Machines Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) Rail defects, head-check growth laws, inspection cycles, rail surface maintenance, rail milling

Any railway infrastructure – especially the rails – suffers from wear and tear. The more trains there are on a line, the higher the wear. Over time, the rails suffer a variety of damages such as cracks, deformations, indentations, skid marks and the like. If these rail defects are not treated, they can lead to serious damage and even rail breakage. Railway technology therefore started very early to develop machines that can compensate for this wear. For 20 years, rail milling has been fighting against so-called rolling contact fatigue (RCF).

5060 6 December 2022 at 10:17 am Tahiri Mohamed Track-bridge interaction effects on the dynamic response of a railway viaduct

Abdellatif Khamlichi, Team 3M, Laboratory STIC, National School of Applied Sciences, University Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tetouan, Morocco.

Mohammed Bezzazi, Department of Physics, Mechanical and Civil Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tangier, Morocco

Viaducts (Viaducts ) railway bridge, ballast

In this study, the vertical motion of a railway bridge having the form of a simply supported beam with uniform cross section properties was analyzed under the circulation of high speed trains. A coupled track-bridge system known as the double-beam model was considered to simulate the dynamics of the bridge structure. In this system, the upper beam represents the rails with the sleepers and the lower beam the bridge deck. The two-beams are coupled through distributed nonlinear springs which model the ballast layer mechanics. The characteristics of ballast have been shown to present a nonlinear behavior. A Duffing-like oscillator was then proposed to identify the experimental data provided by field measurements on real trucks. Considering the circulation of high speed trains, including at critical velocities, the influence of the nonlinear stiffness of the ballasted track on the response of the coupled track-bridge system was analyzed here. This was performed by applying the Galerkin method and the Runge-Kutta scheme to the nonlinear partial differential equations that govern the vertical motion of the two-beams system. It was found that the nonlinear behavior of the ballast affects notably the dynamics of the bridge when the ballast stiffness is low, while this effect is reduced in case of stiff ballast. The proposed modeling constitutes a smart tool that enables to enhance design of ballasted track bridges in high speed trains lines.

5065 21 December 2022 at 5:50 pm Sergio Barcena Digital Innovation for safe and efficient high speed operations in In operations (In operations ) Digital, Operations

Spain has built the longest high-speed infrastructure in Europe, connecting cites the 6 major cities over 1.5 million population with direct connections in around 2 hours for distances around 500km.

After Italy, Spain was the second country in Europe to liberalize the high-speed rail market and Ouigo was the first is the first low-fare, high quality carrier in open access competition, starting services in May 2021.

Our main motivation is to offer allow Spanish fellows a sustainable and affordable mobility. Our aim is our citizens don’t need to choose between a sustainable travel or an affordable travel, with Ouigo you can have both at high speed and with high quality.

The experience of Ouigo in Spain was unique as it is a new company launch in the middle of the pandemic crisis that was an opportunity to accelerate the digital transformation of the operations and commercial activities.

As a young native digital company, Ouigo has maximize the use the technology to simplify our processes, from planning to execution, to deliver consistently and to reduce uncertainty in our operations. Ouigo has also built strong collaboration with key stakeholders to maximise the efficiency of the rail assets.

In the study, we will present a complete view of the innovation in term of operation business model will be presented, from schedule to maintenance, using technical data from train on board equipment and operational data from our operations to better support operational decisions and to analyze holistically the operations to identify incident precursors and continuously improve our performance.

The use of technology brings simplicity, resilience and efficiency. Consequently, we can deliver significant savings that will impact the cost of the price of the tickets and will also enhance the experience of the customer.

The development of Ouigo business model is interesting to understand the opportunities for the rail industry in open access competition.

5067 25 December 2022 at 9:41 am ACHRAF ZOUIZZA Drive-by monitoring of railway bridges

Malika AZMI

Earthworks, tunnels, bridges (Earthworks, tunnels, bridges ) Drive-by monitoring, Railway bridges

Drive-by monitoring of railway bridges, in which a passing train is an exciter of the bridge and a receiver of its response, is explored as an interesting alternative to traditional methods of Structural Health Monitoring, which are more costly and more time consuming.

5071 28 December 2022 at 2:56 pm Georg Selzer Une nouvelle époque pour les machines intelligentes ferroviaires de System7 Maintenance (railway system)(Maintenance (railway system)) machines intelligentes pour la voir ferré, System7

Une nouvelle époque pour les machines intelligentes ferroviaires de System7

Les technologies disponibles aujourd’hui permettent de réaliser des machines intelligentes et économiques. La sécurité, l’automatisation et la qualité maximale des travaux à réaliser sont au centre des intérêts. Cela conduit à des machines proches du robot qui répondent aux exigences du futur.

System7 est le leader mondial en termes d’innovations réalisées.

Les principaux avantages sont les suivants :

Commande automatisée et électronique intelligente
Énorme réduction du bruit et de la poussière
Réduction des coûts énergétiques
Grande disponibilité
Réduction maximale des coûts de maintenance et de LCC
Facilité d’entretien
Possibilité de vérifier les travaux effectués et d’établir des protocoles d’état de la voir en cours du travail.
Ergonomie maximale et réduction de la charge de travail des opérateurs.

Ces innovations et avantages sont illustrés ensuite par les bourreuses et régaleuses de System7.

5076 3 January 2023 at 1:44 pm Amine DHEMAIED Durability of ballasted tracks: the challenges of preventive maintenance of the substructure Renewals (railway system)(Renewals (railway system)) substructure, diagnosis

The first European high-speed line Paris-Lyon (LN1), built during the 80’s, is now aging. As a major thoroughfare, it faces an increase of traffic and of maintenance operations to restore the track level. The high-speed line design was improved for new lines after the LN1 construction which has a specific design especially for track-bed. To guarantee the durability of this ballasted track and the associated operational objectives, corrective operations are needed. The infrastructure components’ renewal (rail, sleepers, and ballast) is planned between 2020-2023 thanks to high-performance machines. However, this work does not include any operations on substructure or drainage systems in the absence of disorders related to the substructure known by the maintainer to date. A holistic approach is proposed to maintain the performance and prevent the emergence of disorders. This approach is based on a thorough analysis combining geotechnics and geophysics, the global railway environment, maintenance operations, and track geometry quality. The results of this analysis highlight critical zones with presence of mud and water saturation in substructures and sometimes ballast layers. An adapted diagnosis is proposed to identify the origin of the observed problems. The first renewal works on infrastructure 2020-2022 confirmed the presence of the detected disorders in the ballast and at the top of sub-ballast layers. Punchy operations to lay a separation/filtration geotextile under the ballast layer remains difficult to carry out. This is due to peculiarity of the line, a lack of suitable industrial resources and the most important thing that it’s a “plaster” solution. After all these observations, many questions are raised: 1) how to qualify/measure the consequences of these disorders on the mechanical behaviors of the substructure? 2) is drainage maintenance and/or upgrading sufficient to achieve the expected performance of the line? 3) is a high level of maintenance acceptable

5078 3 January 2023 at 2:13 pm Amine DHEMAIED Durability of ballasted tracks: the challenges of preventive maintenance of the substructure


Renewals (railway system)(Renewals (railway system)) substructure, diagnosis

The first European high-speed line Paris-Lyon (LN1), built during the 80’s, is now aging. As a major thoroughfare, it faces an increase of traffic and of maintenance operations to restore the track level. The high-speed line design was improved for new lines after the LN1 construction which has a specific design especially for track-bed. To guarantee the durability of this ballasted track and the associated operational objectives, corrective operations are needed. The infrastructure components’ renewal (rail, sleepers, and ballast) is planned between 2020-2023 thanks to high-performance machines. However, this work does not include any operations on substructure or drainage systems in the absence of disorders related to the substructure known by the maintainer to date. A holistic approach is proposed to maintain the performance and prevent the emergence of disorders. This approach is based on a thorough analysis combining geotechnics and geophysics, the global railway environment, maintenance operations, and track geometry quality. The results of this analysis highlight critical zones with presence of mud and water saturation in substructures and sometimes ballast layers. An adapted diagnosis is proposed to identify the origin of the observed problems. The first renewal works on infrastructure 2020-2022 confirmed the presence of the detected disorders in the ballast and at the top of sub-ballast layers. Punchy operations to lay a separation/filtration geotextile under the ballast layer remains difficult to carry out. This is due to peculiarity of the line, a lack of suitable industrial resources and the most important thing that it’s a “plaster” solution. After all these observations, many questions are raised: 1) how to qualify/measure the consequences of these disorders on the mechanical behaviors of the substructure? 2) is drainage maintenance and/or upgrading sufficient to achieve the expected performance of the line? 3) is a high level of maintenance acceptable

5085 13 January 2023 at 3:52 pm David Hughes How High Speed makes for (S)Low carbon () End to End Journey Speed, Shift to rail

Global energy consumption and emissions break down into Buildings: 40% Transportation 40% and Industry 20%. To stay under 1.5 deg C of warming 350.org recommends no more than 350 ppm of atmospheric CO2e. To do this they tell us we need to keep 80% of fossil fuels in the ground. This requires the transportation section to move from 40% to about 12% of energy consumption and thus emissions. Railway energy consumption and emissions are 11 times less than flying and 8 times less than driving, so rail and public transport is the only mode that offers any real chance of achieving these reductions in the time required. In order to ensure this shift takes place we need to focus on the end to end journey and closely integrate the design of the network and supporting infrastructure with the convenience of the passenger. Highspeed rail allows railway to compete by offering convenience and a great end to end speed that flying or driving. But highspeed needs to be seen as one leg of the end to end journey and designers, planners and promoters need to coordinate their efforts to ensure the emissions reduction promise of rail is delivered.

5087 17 January 2023 at 7:25 pm Raphaëlle Chapuis How to entice travelers to change tack to track

Carsten Lotz – Partner, McKinsey&Company, Paris

Intermodal competition (Intermodal competition ) Customer decision criteria, Rail competitiveness

Understanding customer preferences to make rail travel more attractive and increase rail modal share is valuable for decision makers in the rail sectors including operators, infrastructure manager as well as policy makers. Yet, most customer research relies on identifying attributes that generally matter for travelers, resulting in a wide range of different criteria (e.g., comfort, speed, price, safety, accessibility). While these criteria might be relevant for customer satisfaction, they hardly shed light on what actually makes people to decide in favor of or against taking the train, compared to alternative modes of transport like the car.
To better understand actual decision criteria, we have conducted a conjoint experiment with more than 6,000 participants across 9 countries in Europe, North America, and Asia, simulating more than 100,000 hypothetical travel decisions. Results show that across geographies, price is by far the most important decision criterion, followed by the overall travel time. In comparison, additional features like comfort, added services, or sustainability considerations matter far less – while customers generally state that these aspects are important to them, for the actual decision making they are hardly relevant.
The findings imply that decision makers in the rail sector that are concerned with raising rail modal share should first and foremost focus on price and travel times. For long-distance trips, high-speed railway connections therefore have a clear competitive advantage for becoming a widely used means of transport. In most cases, only high-speed lines are able to compete with car or plane in terms of travel time. The study with its unique database thus underlines the importance of high-speed rail. The methodology of the study also offers a tool for high speed operators to strike the right balance in pricing, speed, service offering by customer segment.

5091 22 January 2023 at 5:41 pm Abdelhalil NACIRI Shaping a vision and a culture around a Company project : ITKANE 4.0, an Industrial Excellence Program


Asset management (project development)(Asset management (project development)) industrial excellence program, continuous improvement, quality control

From the start of AlBoraq trains Exploitation in November 2018, SIANA started on an ambitious program to bring the company to a maturity and excellence level allowing it to be an essential leader in maintenance and railway innovation in Morocco and In Africa

ITKANE is the name of our industrial excellence program which aims : operational excellence, continuous improvement, quality control, safety management, improvement of occupational health and Environment by stimulating Innovation and Digital Transformation

5109 2 February 2023 at 2:47 pm Franco Iacobini Drone4rail – Harmonized methodology for Drone/UAV use for bridges inspections

Didier Van Der Velde
Andrea Vecchi
Salvatore Lorelli
Mercedes Gutierrez Ferrandiz

Earthworks, tunnels, bridges (Earthworks, tunnels, bridges ) Drones, Bridges Inspection

Infrastructure Managers from all over Europe have participated in the UIC-project “DRONE4RAIL – Harmonized methodology for drone / UAV use for bridge inspections”, to research the use of drone technology (UAS – Unmanned Aerial Systems) in railway bridge inspections and to standardize regulations. The paper illustrates the main results obtained by this project highlighting main benefits and limitations. The state-of-the-art of drone-technology, the national regulations of aviation-agencies and inspection-processes of the participating countries were compared and summarized. Field tests were carried out in the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and Norway on different structures (steel, masonry and reinforced concrete bridges) with different drones and camera technologies. The results of these experimental studies were included in a recommendation regarding the hardware (flight system and camera-technique) and to the requirements for data-storage and post-processing software. In addition to the technical features, safety aspects were considered, including the elaboration of a generic SORA (Specific Operational Risk Assessment), which can be used as a guideline for drone flights near railway infrastructure in Europe. After describing the benefits and limits of the current state of the technology in different countries and proposing recommendations for the use of drone-inspections in different fields of application, an outlook into future developments of the technique is given.